Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Analysis of Romeo: Christopher Boone Essay

In the book ‘the curious incident of the dog in the night time’ the author had created a very unusual teenager called Christopher Boone. The author used strange and unique techniques to create the effect Christopher brings to the readers. These techniques are; the way in which Christopher communicates, how Christopher describes himself, the way Christopher interacts with other characters and the comments of the other characters. Dialogue Christopher is the type of person who doesn’t know how to tell lies. It is not because he is a good person but because he can’t simply tell lies. â€Å"I do not tell lies. Mother used to say it is because I am a good person but it’s not because I am a good person. It is because I can’t tell lies† most people think that telling the truth is the quality of a good person. But to Christopher it is a way of life â€Å"He said, â€Å"Did you mean to hit the policeman?† â€Å"I said, yes†. This quote tells us that Christopher can’t lie even to get him out of trouble The author also teaches us that Christopher is a very precise and logical person. This is shown by the way Christopher answers to others. He can’t understand sarcasm or jokes for this same reason. Christopher likes to know every single detail, so when you tell him a joke, he would want to break it down to every possible meaning it could have. Christopher loves to give as much detail as possible. â€Å"She was wearing boots which looked like army boots and there were 5 bracelets made out of a silver-coloured metal on her wrist and they made a jingling noise.† Christopher does not shy away from detail. He notices what other people do not notice. The author may have made him act like this to give a hint that he is not a normal 15 year old teenager. Narrative The author has written the book in the 1st point of view, so every event that goes on in the book is exactly what Christopher has experienced. The author has given us information about Christopher from Christopher. He tells us exactly what he likes and what he doesn’t. We see the world from his eyes, so we get a good overview of Christopher. â€Å"My name is Christopher John Francis Boone. I know all the countries of the world and every prime number up to 7,507† he is telling us facts about himself and we are given facts directly not indirectly. The author must have chosen to write this way so that the reader can really engage with Christopher’s character and see how life is for him and maybe then try to compare it with their own life. If it was written in 3rd person, we would only get like a sneak peak of how Christopher is and the book wouldn’t give so much of an effect to reader. Language choice Christopher speaks in a very simple manner. The author has made Christopher speak in a very mathematical and scientific way. â€Å"Is it a long cake with a square cross-section which is divided into equally sized, alternately coloured squares?† when someone is trying to have a normal conversation with him, he would always link it to either maths or science. When recounting, Christopher says exactly what happed. He doesn’t forget any piece of detail when recounting. â€Å"let go of the f*****g dog for Christ’s sake† this quote shows that Christopher doesn’t care if a word is inappropriate, he would just write what he heard. I think the author has linked this to the way Christopher speaks because Christopher only knows things which have actual meaning. These words are not in the dictionary so if someone told Christopher this word, he wouldn’t understand because it doesn’t have a logical meaning. Interaction with others One way the author has given us the hint that Christopher is not a normal teenager is that Christopher says that he doesn’t like to be touched. He can’t even hug his own father. â€Å"sometimes father wants to give me a hug, but I do not like hugging people† this quotes points out that no matter how much his father wants a hug or how much Christopher wants to hug his father, he just can’t do it. Christopher’s strange ways led him to a life scared of things such as strangers and being touched. Sometimes Christopher goes through some emotions which he can’t handle causing him to act in an unmannered way. The author has taken his time to work out Christopher’s character which involves Christopher’s worst habit. In this case it is hitting a person who is either a stranger or someone who touches him â€Å"The policeman took hold of my arm and lifted me onto my feet. I didn’t like him touching me like this. And this is when I hit him† Christopher likes policemen, but he hits him because he hates being touched, especially in a forceful manner. Other characters comments In the book Mrs Shears is Christopher’s neighbour whose husband left her. She doesn’t seem to take any interest in Christopher whatsoever. She is more interested in his father. Christopher’s dad sometimes feels frustrated with the way Christopher behaves. â€Å"Then father banged the steering wheel with his fist and the car weaved a little bit across the dotted line in the middle of the road† Christopher’s dad is furious with Christopher. Even though the author doesn’t state it directly we can tell by his body language and by hitting the steering wheel, he is frustrated with Christopher. Siobhan is Christopher’s teacher in his special school. Christopher is very comfortable around her because she knows exactly how to deal with him and his problem. Siobhan gives him exact instruction about what he can and can’t do, she keeps Christopher balanced. In conclusion as the readers of the curious incident of the dog in the night time† we assume that Christopher is autistic because of the way he behaves. He does not behave like any normal teenager.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Incentive as a Component of Salesman Compensation Structure

Incentives as a Component of Salesman Compensation Structure By Mohit Pandey 11DM-187 Sales Management-Section D What are Incentives? It is defined as a type of additional remuneration either in cash or kind given to an employee as a means of increasing output or as a motivational influence. Why do we need to give incentives? Firstly incentives work as psychological stimulant for a person to perform better. Incentives act like the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. Secondly, the turnover rate of a salesperson is very high and also the cost of replacing a salesperson is also quite high, approximately around $40-50k.Thus to retain the best talent in the company we need to provide adequate incentives to the sales force. The salesperson spends most of his time out in the field and this makes it quite difficult to monitor him. Incentives act as an automatic monitor to make sure that the salesperson is working towards achieving his sales targets. What are the types of Incentives given to a Salesman? The salesman compensation structure is divided into two parts: Fixed Salary and Variable Salary. In a totally risk-free situation there would be no fixed salary, the salesman compensation would consist only of 100% Commissions.But since the market is never 100% risk-free and also because of longer order-cycles the compensation plan has some amount as Fixed Salary. The types of Incentives are: * Cash: This is most widely given type of incentive. Everyone knows that the major lure in a salesman’s job is the opportunity to earn a lot of money and cash incentives are a major component. Cash incentives can be segregated into two sub-types: * Commissions: It is directly to the sales volume. Example: 5% commission on every T. V sold. It can either be calculated on the profit margin or on the price of the product.Commission are short-term incentives and lead to increase in the sales effort put in by the salesman. * Bonus: It is given if the salesman achieves a desired no. of sales known as sales target/quota. It is calculated on the base pay. It is a medium/long term incentive depending on whether it is given quarterly or annually. * Non-Cash: These are generally not counted as a part of the compensation plan. They are given to motivate the salesman and based on performance in the long term. Non-cash incentives include: * Gift Cards * Merchandise Travel What parameters are used to determine incentives? Generally the ratio of incentives as a percentage of the total compensation decreases as you go up the hierarchical structure. At a salesman level it can go up to 100% of his base pay while at the manager level it can vary from 40-60%. The parameters generally used to determine incentives are: * Total revenue * New revenue * Gross profit * Price realization * Units sold * Select product sales * New products * Outdated products * New accounts * Retained accounts * Account expansion Customer satisfaction * First order * Order volume * Contract commit ment * Key sales objectives or milestones The parameters used should be aligned with the business strategy of the company. For e. g. If a company is launching a new product into the market through the existing sales force, then it doesn’t make sense for the company to not have the sales nos. of the new product sold as playing a part in deciding the incentive level of the salesman. Normally only few parameters should be selected so as to make the compensation plan clear to the salesman.The compensation plan should be as clear to the salesman as possible so that he can easily calculate how much he can earn in that year. The sales target being set should be realistic and achievable. Ideally sales targets should be set after a discussion between the management and the salesperson both. Ideally incentives should not have an upper-cap, this deters the high performers. Even if a company has to set an upper-cap it should be higher than the maximum realistic possible of a salesperson. A few key points that should be kept in mind while setting the parameters for deciding incentives are: * The current market situation (growth or recession). * The product type (B2C or B2B) * The sales order cycle (long or short) * The business strategy ( Increase market penetration or may increase sales of a high margin product or launch of a new product) How much incentive to offer and to whom? The percentage amount of incentive offered to the sales force should not be equal across the board. The high performers must be rewarded for their performance, while the low performers need to be encouraged to perform better.The better the performance the higher should be the incentive level. Also in case of team selling the incentive has to be distributed proportionately amongst the team. It should not be the case wherein the laggards piggyback on the star performers and get the same level of incentive. Additionally a proper framework has to be devised on a company-to-company basis to decid e the distribution of incentive for a product sold amongst the team members so as to control costs and avoid giving multiple incentives for the same product to multiple persons involved in the sale.The incentives offered should be mix of both short and long term incentives i. e. commissions, bonus, non-cash rewards, etc. This is to ensure that the motivation level of the salesperson is up throughout the year and does not peak at certain periods. The level of incentive payout should be adequate neither too little so as to discourage the salesperson nor too much as it will increase costs and lower profits and also lower the morale of the non-sales staff. Conclusion:Hence we can conclude that incentives as a component of a salesman compensation structure is highly important. Following is a generic framework which can be used to decide an incentive plan: * The plan should be clear and well understood by the sales force. * Decide the level of incentive i. e. the percentage to be given an d how much and to whom, based on the performance level. * Determine criteria for giving incentives based on a proper analysis of the factors stated above in the report. Keep as less parameters as possible. Keep the sales target level competitive yet achievable. * The level of incentive should be adequate i. e. comparable to the competitor but neither too low nor too high. * Determine the periodicity of incentive payout. * The incentive payout should be based at proper intervals during the year. Sales contests and non-cash rewards are a good way to achieve this. * The plan should be flexible. Ideally make multiple plans and offer it to the sales person so that he can choose which one suits him best. Bibliography: Restoring Balance to Sales CompensationHead, Robert G. Sales and Marketing Management144. 9 (Aug 1992): 48. Readers' report: How we use incentives Donath, Bob. Sales and Marketing Management145. 6 (Jun 1993): 34. Talking money Anonymous. Sales and Marketing Management149. 12 (Nov 1997): 64-70. May the Sales Force Be with You Ladd, Scott. HRMagazine55. 9 (Sep 2010): 105-107. Reframing salesforce compensation systems: An agency theory-based performance management perspective Bartol, Kathryn M. The Journal of Personal Selling ; Sales Management19. 3 (Summer 1999): 1-16.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Change Management in the Learning Organization Essay Example for Free

Change Management in the Learning Organization Essay Organization (1318) , Structure (56) In this paper I intend to discuss change management approaches that support the learning organization philosophy. The learning organization is defined as an organization that acquires knowledge and innovates fast enough to survive and thrive in a rapidly changing environment. Learning organizations (1) create a culture that encourages and supports continuous employee learning, critical thinking, and risk taking with new ideas, (2) allow mistakes, and value employee contributions, (3) learn from experience and experiment, and (4) disseminate the new knowledge throughout the organization for incorporation into day-to-day activities. On the other hand we have a process called change management which is defined as minimizing resistance to organizational change through involvement of key players and stakeholders. At my organization these two go hand in hand and it allows for us as a company to experience constant growth and development of our staff. Our employees are more willing to welcome change when we train them in the process. As businesses moves through the 21st century, they are becoming more dependent upon their managers to be change agents. These companies actually seek managers who can bring success to their organizations. Three of the characteristics we look for in our new managers are they must have the ability to stimulate change, excellent planning capabilities, and ethics. Over the years I have spent in management I have learned that success in  becoming a learning organization relies on a commitment to learning on the part of the organizations I have worked for and the willingness of the individuals involved to be receptive to the change process. As a manager, what we usually can change falls into basically three categories; people, structure, or technology. An efficient manager will make alterations in these areas in an attempt to facilitate change. With people the change involves adjusting attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and probably most importantly behavior. Coaching people to adjust in these areas will help employees within the organization to work together more effectively. Changing structure relates to the job design, specialization, hierarchy and any other structural variables. These usually need to be flexible and non-static in order to be adaptable to change. When dealing with technological change we are looking at modifying work processes and methods along with the introduction of new equipment. To me learning organizations support the change process just as much as change management supports the learning organization philosophy. I say that because every change calls for some sort of learning as the more comprehensive the change the more attention we have to place on learning for the individuals involved in the change. By utilizing the learning organizations philosophies companies including the one I work for are able to magnify the potential of its employees which keeps them growing. Learning in action: a guide to putting the learning organization to work/ David A. Garvin Change Management in the Learning Organization. (2016, Aug 06). We have essays on the following topics that may be of interest to you

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Personal Perspective on Personality Theory Essay

Personal Perspective on Personality Theory - Essay Example Some of the more well-known theorists in this field are Sigmund Freud, Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Each of these men approached the question of personality from a completely unique angle, presenting models that attempted to explain the complex mechanisms that go into the development of personality, however, Maslow’s theory of self-actualization seems to take a predominant lead in explaining personality development. Maslow proposed personality was developed along a hierarchy of needs beginning with the most basic needs of food, clothing and shelter. As these needs were being met, the individual could move on to obtaining the second level needs. These levels progressed through physiological, safety, belongingness/love, esteem and self-actualization. Self-actualization was the highest level need and represented that point in a person’s personality development when they have met all lower needs and are now free to pursue their true potential. â€Å"A person who is satisfied at the previous four levels will feel bored unless she or he is engaged in self-actualization striving† (Jazwinski, 1998). Within this theory, he goes on to enumerate 16 different major characteristics of a self-actualized person, 15 of which I can identify with. However, it is true that Maslow’s theory remains a little shallow with respect to how individual differences are formed with the only contributing factor being how well or poorly our needs have been realized (Pettifor, 1996). Freud’s theory centers around the concepts of the id, the ego and the superego. According to this theory, the id is the unconscious mind that responds only to urges and gratification. As we mature, we begin to act upon those impulses and develop a conscious mind, the ego. However, the ego recognizes that some of the actions desired by the id are not appropriate within a given society, so it begins

Is the Future of Democratic Journalism Better than the Past Essay

Is the Future of Democratic Journalism Better than the Past - Essay Example Media have been used in journalism as the modes of communication in sending the founded information to the public. It has been known that journalism focuses on the truth that lies in the current issues and happenings in the society and surroundings. Various subjects have been incorporated to journalism from businesses to governmental activities and reactions of the society at large (Pavlik 2001, p. 83). It also contains entertainment and show business as artists, actors and directors are the topics of the rendered reports. Journalism may be performed by making documentaries, doing some interviews and capturing photos of the footage. In the current state of the world, people heavily rely on the news media as the professional body to analyze and manage the information flow regarding public events and happenings (Pavlik 2001, p. 83). The way media and journalism are used undergoes changes as technology progresses swiftly. People are migrating to the newer form of journalism which is don e through the power of the Internet. The digital age has greatly changed journalism as wired networks allow people to exchange information anytime and anywhere as geographical boundaries are not obstacles anymore. Gadgets are widely-used nowadays like tablet PCs, laptops, desktops, smart phones and other products that are connected to the Internet through cables or wireless capabilities (p. 213). Print media have been in the dilemma of becoming less popular and may lead to extinction as the audience prefers digital news over the print media like newspapers (Paterson 2008, p. 115). Some journalists may look at the change and shift of journalism and media as a negative phenomenon as the traditional ways may be gone in a matter of years. In contrary, other journalists think that the Internet as the emerging media for journalism has a bright potential that is waiting to be used to the full extent and for the development of journalism as a practice. News organizations are slowly embracin g the advent of the new media as digital technology is incorporated now into the delivery of news and public affairs though the traditional media may not be able to cope up. Various techniques are then employed to ensure the quality and improve the way news is generated based on the gathered information. Some even make use of maestro concept which is a brainstorming method of getting the job done. A group of journalists and media men compose the brainstorming session in constructing the news stories and projected images for the news scoop. It had been formulated by Professor Leland Ryan, a journalism educator who had assisted various reporters, artists and media men into how they can create good news stories. In performing the brainstorming session, a leader is assigned as the maestro among the members of the team who will preside with the format of the story planning. The group then will think about the questions that the audience may ask once they have perceived the news and jot t hem down. Afterwards the concept would be formulated based on the listed questions by answering them. Next, the team will visualize the scenario and how they can put the news story on a page. Lastly, the group will think of the obstacles that may prevent them from posting a good news story. They may need to consider the appropriate images and fonts for the stories and some logos or additional graphics that may enhance the delivery of the news. The group may even think of possible lay-outs for

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Dr.Jekyell and Mr. Hyde Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Dr.Jekyell and Mr. Hyde - Essay Example In such narratives, a character is divided â€Å"into two distinct, usually antithetical personalities† (Sosnoski 121). This observation becomes highly relevant in this context as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, if they are interpreted according to basic essence of their character, entirely from the social perspective it becomes clear that they are antithetical. However, mastery of the narrative lies in the fact it has successfully been able to establish, especially with support of psychological interpretation that beneath layers of apparently furnished and sophisticated existence, there always lays a cruel and heinous self that everyone keeps suppressed. Dr. Jekyll, on one hand, while through his scientific experiments, is keen on explore his brutal and wild nature, the murky side of his existence, on the other, he is equally scared of the truth that once that wilderness in him is unleashed as Mr. Hyde, he would lose control over him. Thus, in order to control himself he asks for help from Dr. Lanyon: â€Å"Confident as I am that you will not trifle with this appeal, my heart sinks and my hand trembles at the bare thought of such possibility† (Stevenson 53). There is no denial of the fact that Dr. Jekyll has sufficient intellect to realize consequences of his deed but he always had a tremendous desire to enjoy â€Å"an honorable and distinguished future† (Stevenson 60). This very lust has acted as the main impetus to defy his consent and continue with his scientific experiments to create Hyde out of him. While he enjoyed being a respected member of the society, he also was highly enthusiastic to enjoy his primitive sel f and in both these context he has remained honest to equal extents: â€Å"Many a man would have even blazoned such irregularities as I was guilty of; but from the high views that I had set before me, I regarded and hid them with morbid sense of shame. †¦ the exacting

Friday, July 26, 2019

The internationalization of a multinational enterprise of your choice Essay

The internationalization of a multinational enterprise of your choice from an emerging economy - Essay Example Samsung Group registered US $ 327 billion in revenues in 2013 and a net income of US $ 30.1 billion (Samsung Electronics, 2015). The multinational has regional subsidiaries that are based in Peru, Chile, Colombia and Argentina. The multinational is a global leader in semiconductor, mobile and display technologies and has leveraged on its research and development capabilities in order to provide innovative technologies and deliver customer value (Russell and Cohn 2012). The company’s vision 2020 is to ‘inspire the world, create the future’ through providing innovative technologies and developing new value across all core networks (Michell 2011). The research and development (R & D) consists of 42 global facilities that aim at setting new standards of excellence and forging new markets. Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), R & D centers, and division product development teams work together across markets such as US, UK, Russia, India, Israel, Japan and C hina in understanding the emerging customer needs and preferences (Michell 2011). The paper will discuss Samsung internationalization process of the consumer electronics division, South Korea as an emerging market and Samsung Electronics internalization process. The paper will outline the sequence of market entries, the speed of internationalisation, the market entry modes and targeted market niches using internationalisation theories. The paper will finally offer recommendations for future internationalisation. Emerging markets are characterised by rapid industrialisation, adoption of mixed economy of free markets. South Korea is the 15th largest economy measured by GDP, industrial output and services and the 12thlargest economy in terms of the purchasing power parity. The country has a nominal GDP of $ 1.449 trillion and an average GDP growth rate of 3 percent annually (Central Intelligence Agency 2014). The GDP per capita is $ 35, 485 and inflation has remained stable at below 2 percent.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

GEL 101 Research project Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

GEL 101 project - Research Paper Example Discrimination can be based on somebody’s gender, sex, income, and so on whereas, racism is also a kind of discrimination, but it is based mainly on a person’s skin color. When a person is trying to be a racist actually what he is doing is to compare others with himself on the basis of their skin color or their material possessions. One must never forget that comparing people based on such things, which they do not get by choice, is actually a false comparison. A white guy is not white because he wanted to be so, likewise a black guy is not black by his own choice rather they both are the way they are, because that is how they were meant to be. Therefore, racism or discrimination is a very unrealistic approach on behalf of individuals. A realist would never be a racist at all because he knows the philosophy of life. There is another approach, which sounds pretty much unrealistic as well, is of considering others as inferior based on their material possessions. Material possessions are worldly things, which can be earned or which can be lost, somebody who lacks something today is only for today. No one knows for surety where he will be the coming day. Then why bother and waste time in judging people which does not help one in anything but simply gives birth to hatred. Famous People who have experienced racism/discrimination: Oprah Winfrey, a famous TV artist, says that she has been a victim of racial discrimination, when she went to a store in Switzerland to buy a bag, which was designed by Tom Ford and named after Jennifer Aniston. According to her, when she asked for this bag, the sales girl showed some other bags and refused indirectly to show that particular bag saying it was too expensive for her. Oprah says that it was because of racial discrimination that the bag she demanded was not showed to her and she felt embarrassed. While acknowledging the apology of the owner of the store and sales girl Winfrey said â€Å"Discrimination is there, an ywhere around the world, every day† (Hall). The other celebrity that faced racial discrimination is Gabby Douglas, who is a star athlete and won two gold medals at London Olympic Games. According to her, she endured racism and discrimination while she was training in London. She says,† One of my teammates was like, 'Can you scrape the bar?' And they were like, 'Why doesn't Gabby do it, she's our slave?' I definitely felt isolated; I felt 'why am I deserving this? Is it because I'm black?† (Hersha). By reading the statements of these two famous personalities, it becomes obvious that not only common people face such situations, but celebrities also happen to face this. Each human being is worthy of being respected and is not supposed to be treated as such. The color discrimination in America is increasing rapidly, recently some violent activities that took place in the name of racism and discrimination, include; Christopher Lane, who is an Australian baseball player, became the victim of three wannabe gang-gangers. A 20-year-old guy named Javon Tyrek from New York, who has been charged with the first-degree murder and burglary, murdered a 99-year-old Fannie Gumbinger. These are merely accidents that are turning back the clock on racial discrimination, and have acted as a basis for the rebirth of this issue. Furthermore two black teens, Demetrius Glenn and Kenan D. Adams-Kinard, took the life of a World War II

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Write a documented ARGUMENT essay for or against illegal immigrants

Write a documented ARGUMENT for or against illegal immigrants receiving social services for example food stamps welfare medical care or financial aid for school - Essay Example This essay points against the illegal migrants receiving social status and other well-beings. Limited legal migration to United States of America is desirable until it takes a longer time to assimilate immigrant population into American culture and values making them American citizens instead of immigrants with foreign nationalities. However, the flow is so steep that the country is even called "nation of immigrants" and is being challenged by globalization, which is making terrorism much easier. The biggest challenge for policymakers is distinguishing illusory immigration problems from real problems. One thing is quite clear: If this drastic situation continues, Native Americans will no longer plays pivotal role in the countries economy. The various efforts of members of congress have focused on a wide variety of changes in current policy, including improving border security, strengthening employer verification, establishing a new temporary guest worker program, and offering some level of amnesty to illegal immigrants currently living in the United States. That will surely promote the living status of original nationalities. . The steep increase in the immigration flow has corresponded with steady and substantial reductions in unemployment from 7.3 percent to 5.1 percent over the past two decades.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Production Planning using ERP Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Production Planning using ERP - Essay Example However it is not widespread these days, it is probable to carry out material requirements planning tasks by hand as well (Waldner & Duffin, 1992, p. 47). MRP is a procedure that comprises a number of fundamental business tasks and information across the business encompassing entire levels in the bill of materials, sales forecasts, sales orders, and inventory. With the help of MRP it can be decided accurately what as well as when materials are necessary to manufacture the most timely as well as competitively priced services and products for customers (GreenTree, 2009) and (Qiang, Khong, San, Jianguo, & Choy, 2001). Beasley (2009) has stated that material requirements planning system is a material planning technique which appeared in 1970s by making use of information technology and computer technology. The major characteristics of material requirements planning are the formation of material necessities by means of exploding the bills of time-phasing and material of requirements by means of posted standard lead times (RockfordConsulting, 2009) and (Beasley, 2009). Material Requirements Planning II is acknowledged as the next generation of material requirements planning and it comprises the characteristics of closed loop system. Through this system the production planning takes the fundamental and main schedule that force the material plan which is the main input to the business or manufacturing capacity plan. Feedback loops proffers input to the elevated levels like a reiterative procedure (RockfordConsulting, 2009). In material requirements planning II operation, forecasts are linked as well a s synchronized for client orders, as well as supplied to the main/master scheduling module. When the master schedule is positioned, the material requirements planning procedure explodes the bills of material, usually on weekends or overnight, also builds up the material requirements. The requirements or materials feed the capacity planning

Comparing and Contrasting Tragic Heroes †Oedipus and Prufrock Essay Example for Free

Comparing and Contrasting Tragic Heroes – Oedipus and Prufrock Essay Introduction: Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 –1940) the Irish American novelist and short story writer of the twentieth century said â€Å"Show me a hero and I will write you a tragedy†(as quoted in Indeed more often than not, great tragedies of yore were always centered round the deeds or the misdeeds of a hero (usually a man of noble birth) his misfortunes and the cursed nature of his life, fated to suffer and fall from glory. The concepts of heroes and heroism have themselves undergone vast changes from Sophocles’ (496-406 B. C) times. Consequently, the idea of hero-based tragedy indeed, even the basic traits of heroism has undergone transformation. As against the noble-born, valorous hero of Sophocles and Aristotle (in The Poetics of 30 B. C.), the common man who struggles to make a decent living, and fulfill ordinary aspirations such as wanting to be loved, given affection, loyalty, friendship etc, in a mundane, mechanized, and mad-after-money world (bereft of human values) his life has become the focus of the twentieth century tragedies. This essay, shall take two characters, Oedipus – the King (425 B.C), in the ancient drama of Sophocles, and J. Alfred Prufrock, in the twentieth century poet T.S. Eliot’s (1888 –1965) â€Å"Love song of J. Alfred Prufrock† (1915), and analyze their similarities and dissimilarities, with a brief definition of Tragic Hero as given by Sophocles, and the definition of a Tragic Hero in modern times. Definitions with illustrations of Tragic Heroes – Ancient and Twentieth Century: First, the idea of a tragic hero, in the ancient times shall be discussed.   Aristotle, who was a great Greek philosopher and thinker, stipulated a couple of traits as absolutely necessary for a tragic hero: he must be noble origin, or at least possess a noble spirit, and he must be the cause of his own suffering. Aristotle (384-322 B.C), quoting the character of Oedipus depicted by Sophocles, laid down certain rules that a tragic hero must possess: a leader who is filled with good and bad elements Oedipus was of noble birth and had many noble characters like wanting redeem his kingdom from the plague, but he also was too proud etc; he is ignorant of his imminent fall, though the audience have prior knowledge of it in case of Oedipus the audience had prior knowledge of his birth and identity, while he considers himself the son of Polybus, the king of Corinth; his inherent flaw or â€Å"hamart ia† is the cause of his fall – his belief that he can over come the prophecy that he will kill his father; suffers isolation because of this self-exile from Corinth; suffering is irreversible – the blinding he causes to himself later; undergoes punishment because of his own pride or â€Å"hubris† – Oedipus pursues the killer of King Laius, despite counsel against it; a misguided sense of heroism, wherein he is prepared to take on the guilt of the state or kingdom on himself – his belief that he can somehow overcome the prophecy of the oracle by leaving his parents; resulting in greater conflict with fate – Oedipus finally goes to Thebes and killed his own father, without knowing who the latter was, thereby fulfilling the oracle; a restoration of balance to the original state of social harmony through cleansing of pity and fear – Oedipus undertakes to go away in exile which was the punishment he had ordered for the killer of the previous king handing over the kingdom to Creon; which he called catharsis or tragic satisfaction (adapted from Allingham, 2002:1). Thus Oedipus exactly fits the role with of a tra gic hero, as laid down by Aristotle. Coming to modern tragic hero of the twentieth century, as mentioned earlier, has come a long way from the stipulations of the ancients for tragic-heroism.   Daniel J. Boorstin (1914 –2004), an American writer, and the Librarian of Congress, talks of the heroes of the modern world as being â€Å"anonymous† and â€Å"the unsung hero: †¦ the honest cop, the hard worker at lonely, underpaid, unglamorous, unpublicized jobs† (as in A modern tragic hero may described as someone who does not hold any of the ancient lofty ideals, rather as an ordinary man who is disillusioned with the ruthless world around him and is not able to come to terms with it and suffers thereby with a feeling of helplessness, and is unable to realize his full potential because of this. Typically, he is subjected to moods, driven by extreme happiness or plunged into extreme sorrow, very sophisticated, filled with doubts, lives in the crowded cities yet suffers desperately from isolation, smart yet sensitive, and often disillusioned to such an extent that he feels life itself has lost all meaning or relevance to him. Eliot’s Prufrock, typically suffers all these qualities. For example, he is always filled with self-doubt, â€Å"a deep phobia of life, turning into what one could perhaps best describe as complete biological defeatism† (Mirsky, undated). He seems to be the very best representation of so many negative attributes, like procrastination, indecision, doubts, frustration that reflects the impotent helplessness of the modern, urban man. The first few lines in the poem are from Dante’s Inferno, which is used as a prelude, to show that Prufrock, the protagonist is already doomed and is voicing out his thoughts because he is so sure that no-one is hearing them. The poem describes the innermost feelings, extremely tortured with a wanting, to disclose his love to his chosen woman, but prevented from self-doubt, and fear, phobia, â€Å"Do I dare / Disturb the universe?† (Eliot, lines 44-45), because he only knew too well the out come of such expression â€Å"That is not what I meant at all† (Eliot, line 97). The vivid description of the places, possibly his dwelling place, reflects the sordid state in which the typical twentieth century man lived, and the isolation he felt â€Å"of lonely men in shirt-sleeves† (Eliot, line 73). Eliot’s Prufrock, ultimately fails even to begin his proposal to his lady love, because he could not muster the courage to do it, with a premonition of failure overcoming him and, grows old, suffering life-long loneliness. In a sense this defeatism, is his flaw that proves to be the cause of his woes. He claims that he is not â€Å"Prince Hamlet† (Eliot, line 111), referring to the Shakespearean tragic hero, implying his lack of royal lineage, but the irony is that he is, in fact exactly like Hamlet, who by postponing his decision avenge his father’s death, by killing kill Claudius, leads to the death of many others, and finally his own. All this prove that, he does conform to the image of a twentieth century tragic-hero. Comparing and Contrasting, the two tragic heroes: One similarity between the two characters that strikes a literature student immediately is that, both Oedipus and Prufrock, actually are depicted as surviving long into old age, despite all their sadness and failures and disillusionment. Almost as if to chew cud, ruminate all that had gone by and to die a slow painful death of their miserable actions; misguided in Oedipus’ case, â€Å"Woe, woe, and woe again! / How through my soul there darts the sting of pain, / The memory of my crimes† (Sophocles, lines 1372-74) and inactions in the case of Prufrock, â€Å"I grow old† (Eliot, line 120). Both, ultimately realize their folly, or flaw, but are helpless to reverse the situation. In Prufrock’s case, he is entirely the cause of his own suffering, but still is impotent to change the situation. Both despise themselves for their helplessness. Thus, their sufferings seem amplified and add to the brooding quality of their tragic lives. Both are isolated and are despised by the world, in their thinking. Prufrock states that he doesn’t think that the mermaids will sing to him; Oedipus begs to be led away hurriedly, being the most polluted of all, and â€Å"Of all men most accursed† (Sophocles, line1396). Though the two characters share the above stated common traits and both are tragic heroes, there are quite a few dissimilarities too. The first difference is the form of portrayal of the tragic heroes. Oedipus is the hero of the dramatic form, and hence his character is more clear and open to study, presenting a fuller picture of all his characteristic traits and complex behavior. Prufrock, on the other hand is neither a king, nor of noble thinking, and he is the tragic hero in a poem. Implicitly, the shortage of space in a poem puts limitations on extensive character portrayal of the hero. Thus, the student is able to study only a portion of the character’s life-span of Prufrock, in contrast to the full life history of Oedipus. The other most striking contrast is that Oedipus is an ancient tragic hero – actively upholding the principles of high idealism, altruism, justice, and valor while being beleaguered by feelings of jealousy, treachery, disloyalty, dishonor, greed, lust for power etc, the modern,   tragic-hero is more of an anti-hero, and impotent. In the sense, he is so defeated by the power of the dull, uninspiring world around him, that he prefers to rather remain inactive, than to actively try to change his situation and be defeated. It is almost as if the uselessness of the attempts of the ancient tragic heroes have been embedded in the collective psyche of the modern tragic hero, and hence, he is already aware of the outcome, he doesn’t even want to attempt. Oedipus not being aware of his true identity, led him to wrongly believe that Polybus was his father, and thereafter his vow never to return to Corinth. But still he, as the mark of a true hero took an action of self-exile which ultimately led to fructify the designs of fate. Nevertheless, he was action-oriented and defeated. Whereas, the modern tragic hero in Prufrock, is so much a pessimist, that he remains defeated with inaction – by sheer preference. In fact, it is said that T.S. Eliot was reflecting on the dismal conditions of the world surrounding him, and this poem partially paved the way for his other later works like The Wasteland (1922). The differing time-periods of the two characters have resulted in the portrayal of the different societies in which these two heroes lived. For example, the people of the land of Thebes have been represented as the Chorus, and they are actively involved in the happenings of the state, the king and the welfare of the state, showing a healthy environment; whereas, the desolate depiction of the twentieth century environment, in Eliot’s poem is more dismal, and uninspiring. It seems the society as a common force had died out, or at least not visible. Conclusion: The tragic heroes Oedipus and Prufrock belong to totally different ages; consequently, present entirely different set of traits and ideals by which they are depicted. While both the heroes have some aspects common to all tragedies, they also display very contrasting traits which make their study, all the more interesting.   However, both are symbols of negative impact that afflict the state, ancient and the twentieth century.                  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   List of readings and works cited The sources on which this essay is based on are: Eliot, T.S.  (1888–1965).†The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock† in Prufrock and Other Observations.  Ã‚  1917. On line edition Published May 1996 by   Web address Accessed on June 12, 2006. Sophocles. Oedipus the King, translated by E. H. Plumptre. Vol. VIII, Part 5. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier Son, 1909–14;, 2001.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Website address and Accessed on June 12, 2006. Other works cited and readings that have helped in gaining a better understanding towards writing this essay are: Allingham, V, Philip. 2002. â€Å"Aristotelian Tragedy and the Novels of Thomas Hardy† in The Victorian Web. Website: Accessed on June 12, 2006. McCoy, Kathleen., Harlan, Judith. (1992). ENGLISH LITERATURE FROM 1785 (New   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   York: HarperCollins, 1992: 265-66) Web site address:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Accessed on June 12, 2006. (2005).   â€Å"Memorable Quotations: Heroes† website address Accessed on June 12, 2006. Mirsky, D.S. Undated.   Ã¢â‚¬Å"T. S. Eliot and The End of Bourgeois Poetry† trans. by Gunnar Jauch, Annelie Hultà ©n, and Arwin van Arum. Website address Accessed on June 12, 2006.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Literature Review Train Travel Essay Example for Free

Literature Review Train Travel Essay In order to conduct a thorough review of train travel it is important to first place my own work within the wider context of the existing knowledge in relation to this topic. By looking at studies which have already been conducted it is possible to observe questions which remain unanswered in this field and to look critically at existing literature in order to give my personal study a greater sense of purpose and to ensure that it makes significant contribution to the field. Social Construct of Train Travel A particular area of study relating to train travel which seems interesting to me is that which is pointed out by Watts (2008). In her paper she examines the social, imaginary and material work involved in making a journey by rail. Following ethnographic research consisting of quotations and photographs the author argues that rail passengers are spatially distributed when they make a journey by train. In her analysis she points out that a great deal of research has been conducted into the way in which time and space are constructed in society, however few researchers have conducted a specific analysis of the items and people involved in this creation. As a result this is an area I am keen to investigate as the way in which time and space is created is an area which invites more specific investigation and simultaneously this topic in relation to train travel has had little academic attention. Therefore by investigating this topic I feel I would be able to fill a gap in existing research. A further article which builds on this notion of the social construct of travelling by rail is that of Bissell (2008). In his study he looks at â€Å"some of the fluid relationships between everyday visuality, materiality and mobility through practices of contemporary railway travel in Britain† (1) The article looks primarily at the visual issues in train travel including the interior of the carriage and the landscape viewed through the window in relation to how these affect the perceptions of time, space and location throughout the journey. Such a take on train travel is something which I am very interested in and by using the conclusions made in this paper I would be able to add to the cannon of debate on this topic to contrast the findings of this study with those from an American perspective, to broaden this debate into a multi cultural arena where it may be the case that a vastly different social construct is created through train travel. This notion is extremely interesting to me and is one which, as it is yet to be developed from a transnational context, would therefore allow me to add to the academic body of knowledge on this topic. Train Travel for Business Along with the social construct of train travel another area which much literature has been conducted into is train travel in relation to alleviating problems for businesses. As train travel is often undertaken by business professionals who may need to get from two areas which are relatively far apart and are both subject to high levels of street congestion the degree to which train travel is an effective way for businesses to get to different locations for meetings or negotiations I feel therefore is an important one. One paper which has done this in relation to the relative effectiveness of train travel versus air or road travel for businesses is that of Bhat (1995). In his paper Bhat deploys an extremely qualitative and thorough evaluation of what he terms the ‘independence of irrelevant alternatives’ (IIA) in order for him to be able to come to the conclusion that different approaches to this topic elicited a different set of results. As this paper had a heavy weighting on the effectiveness of specific models in investigating this topic I feel that one way in which it can be improved is to select an approach or a model from the outset, and then stick with this throughout in order for the conclusion to be more orientated around the travel mode as opposed to the model itself. Nonetheless this paper does point out to me that the heteroscedastic model is superior to both the multinomial logit and nested logic models in the quality of results it is able to generate and therefore it will be worth me bearing this in mind when I come to conduct my own research. Another paper on a similar topic to this explores the relationship between the timing of your journey and the choice of which transportation mode you take. Conducted by Nurul Habib et al. (2009) this paper conducts a correlational analysis of these two decisions and comes to the conclusion that unobserved factors contributed to both the decision of which time to undertake your journey and which transport mode to take. Something I found particularly helpful about this paper was that it pointed out the tendency for congested peak travel periods to expand which is a phenomenon known as ‘peak spreading’. As this paper provides empirical evidence for this notion is therefore justifies further investigation owing to the importance of travel between cities in today’s society. Similarly, as this paper utilises a multinomial logit model, a discrete-continuous econometric model and a continuous time hazard model the issues relating to the effectiveness of these models has been highlighted to me as an area I will need to conduct a further amount of research in to in order to ensure that the method I ultimately select is effective in generating reliable results. Along with this issue of which model to apply to my research a study by Kroes and Sheldon (1988) point out another issue I should be aware of when conducting research into train travel. In their article they conduct a review of the stated preference method in the transport sector by another of other academics and assess the value of using this method in comparison to other similar methods to assessing why people have selected the particular mode of transport. As this article covers a range of other train transport related studies it therefore is useful in assessing the literature in this field as a whole as it has a rather broad scope. By looking at the individual studies and the successful and unsuccessful elements of them I am therefore able to select a method which suits my particular study most aptly and as a result conduct a thorough and exhaustive investigation into my chosen area of train travel. Travel Time Key names in the field of rail travel include Laura Watts and David Bissell. Something which they have both written about is the notion of travel time in relation to passenger experience. In a study by Watts and Urry (2008) the authors attempt to provide evidence to dispel the myth that time spent travelling is wasted and dead. In order to encourage funding into travel projects the authors propose that rather that attempting to minimise travel time, by linking the notion of travelling with activities and fantasies they therefore suggest that the perception that travel time is wasted is therefore incorrect. Through looking at activities such as engaging with other passengers, accessing wireless networks, views out the window and using items you have packed in your bag they therefore provide evidence which ultimately represent travel time as a useful being of time where practical and fantasy activities can be indulged, thus encouraging investment into travel projects and infrastructures. I find this research particularly useful as it has called for a revaluation of previously taken for granted attitudes towards travelling by train. By looking at the topic more broadly and dispelling common misconceptions the authors are able to create an article which both covers brand new ground and gives attention to an under investigated issue. The theoretical approach they establish therefore is something I wish to build upon in my own study as the issue is so recent it therefore is yet to have any support or criticism surrounding it. A further study by Bissell also investigates this topic however from a different perspective. Bissell (2010) looks at the notion of community and atmosphere within a train carriage. He notes something which I find interesting, that there is a certain atmosphere within a train carriage which has a powerful effect on the traveller in terms of a reticent passivity which contradicts a set of forces which work when travelling by train which prime an individual to act. As far as I am aware this societal approach to the atmosphere on a train carriage has only been conducted in relation to psychology and obedience before and therefore it is very interesting that Bissell has looked at it within the field of transport. Whilst I feel that this study is extremely relevant and is something a great number of people may be able to relate to some criticism I have is that the notion he is describing is extremely intangible and whilst he does provide extensive primary research as evidence the atmosphere is difficult to pin and down and evaluate scientifically. Another study on this topic is that of Ole (2009). This study looks at the idea of mobility in urban areas. The author describes the tendency for modern cities to be represented not just by their static venues but also by their transit spaces and argues that there should be a re configuration of the way in which identities of place are conceptualised and that transit spaces ought to become a location for meaningful interaction and pleasure. As with the Watt and Urry article this paper calls for a revaluation of the attitudes towards train travel and therefore provides a useful framework which forms a base upon which it would be possible to build upon and expand in my own study. Conclusion Throughout my literature study I have been able to identify the key theorists in the field of train travel and highlight some potent and relevant issues in this area of study. By looking critically at research which has already been conducted I am now able to ensure that my own study brings new ideas into academic discourse and that my investigation does not cover ground already subject to analysis. The gaps I have noted and other observations made throughout the body of my text therefore now place me in an ideal position to be able to come to a conclusion based on relevant research which will be will informed and critical in its scope. Works Cited Bissell, David. â€Å"Visualising everyday geographies: practices of vision through travel-time† Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 34 (2008) 42- 60 Bissell  David. â€Å"Passenger mobilities: affective atmospheres and the sociality of public transport.† Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 28 (2010) 270- 89 Bhat, Chandra. â€Å"A heteroscedastic extreme value model of intercity travel mode choice.† Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 29 (1995) 471- 83 Kroes, Eric P. and Sheldon, Robert J., â€Å"Stated Preference Methods: An Introduction.† Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 22 (1988), 11- 25 Nurul Habib, Khandker, Day, Nicholas, and Miller, Eric. â€Å"An investigation of commuting trip timing and mode choice in the Greater Toronto Area: Application of a joint discrete-continuous model.† Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 43 (2009) 639- 53 Ole, Jensen B. â€Å"Flows of Meaning, Cultures of Movements Urban Mobility as Meaningful Everyday Life Practice.† Mobilities 4 (2009) 139-58 Watts, Laura. â€Å"The art and craft of train travel.† Social and Cultural Geography 9 (2008): 711- 26 Watts  Laura and Urry  John. â€Å"Moving methods, travelling times.† Environment and Planning

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Definition Of The Life Cycle Costing Construction Essay

Definition Of The Life Cycle Costing Construction Essay This report emphasizes for identifying critical phases of pre contract cost planning and controlling process in the life cycle of project with respect to the RIBA plan of work how to manage them and how to obtain a maximum turnover of the project within the quantity surveyors role as a cost manager. Hence, this study will discuss significant project pre contract cost planning and controlling process, such as methods of estimates for cost planning for different stages of RIBA work plan, pre-contract cost planning and cost controlling process with respect to the RIBA plan of work a client/consultant may adopt during each stage, the term life cycle costing and related terminology, the quantity surveyors role as a cost manager, in the life cycle of the project. MAIN BODY Explain the methods of preparing estimates for cost planning for different stages of RIBA work plan. What Is Cost Planning? The Cost Planning is a method of cost controlling the cost (Price to client) of a project within a pre-determined sum up to the tender stage. (Page3, Cost studies) Cost Planning give advice to client how much will be project cost. As well, cost planning will advise when the expected expenses will most possible occur. Hence its important for get required project finance and for determining possible project profit. Therefore cost planning process essential to success of project. Methods of Estimating for Cost Planning There are some significant estimating methods uses in construction industry for Cost planning process. Those methods give preliminary estimate, hence Quantity Surveyor has to modify predetermine data considering the followings, such as , market conditions, Size, number of storeys, specification level, inclusions exclusions, service, site foundation conditions and other factors. Conference Estimating Method RIBA Stage A of Options Appraisal and stage B Design Brief, These method uses for preparation of the initial price estimate give to the client. It is based on a cooperative view of a group of persons, and not quantify in any particular way. Financial methods RIBA Stage A of Options Appraisal and stage B Design Brief, This method fixes a cost limit on the building design, according to the unit of accommodation or rental values. For example, Unit method   RIBA Stage A of Options Appraisal and stage B Design Brief, The unit method is multiplies desire standard unit of accommodation by an approximate cost per unit. Not required specific drawings, specifications, only the concept of the project relevant to the required function. For example: Schools costs per pupil enplace Hospitals costs per bed enplace Car parks cost per car space Estimate = Standard units  of accommodation x Cost per unit Cube method   Design Stage This is the superseded method because of inherent disadvantages; this method needs some sketch drawings, historical cost data, and also  important estimator experience. It is based on association between building volume and unit cost. For example: Superficial area method RIBA Stage B Strategic Briefing and also can be used for Stage C This is presently most common use method, its use for early price estimating purposes. The area of each of the floors multiplied by the cost per square meter. Mostly important Storey heights, plan shape and methods for when choose on the rate need be used. For example: Story enclosure unit method This technique use weightings for the estimating the building elements Elemental Cost estimating Detail Design Stage (Production information Stage F) This can use to establish the approximate cost of a construction project. It analyzes, the cost of the project on an elemental basis using from other similar projects. Also provides cost advice during the design process. Detail drawings are required. For example: Approximate Cost estimating Approximate quantities present additional detailed approximate estimate. No particular rules of  measurement exist, Also significantly more information is required from the designer.. For example: Resource analysis (Pre Construction Stage Tender Documentation -G) This method is traditionally adopted by contractors estimators to determine their individual rates for measured items in bills of quantities. All individual measured items are analyzed into its element parts such as labour, materials and plant. This method is not a pre-tender method of price prediction strictly. For example: Explain the pre-contract cost planning and cost controlling process with respect to the RIBA plan of work a client/ consultant may adopt during each stage What Is Pre-contract Cost Planning? Pre Cost planning is very important to successful planning, design and construction of projects and is aimed at providing best value solutions. Essentially it is a pre-costing method of a project. As well as Pre-estimation of a design proposal will give clear picture about the cost to the employer and design team to make decisions regarding the project to make sure value for money. Pre-Contract Cost Planning Process The pre-contract cost planning process according to the RIBA plan of work 1998; it can be described as follows. Graph 2.1 Pre-stage A (Establish the budget) Client is the appointing client management team (Consultants) such as, client representative, cost consultant, according to his requirements. Identify objectives, physical scope of project, standard of quality of building and services, timeframe and establishing the budget. Emphasis nature of clients problems and functional requirements on proposed project. Work Stage A (Options Appraisal) Consultant has to identify of client prerequisite and possible limitation on development and cost of the ideal solution. Prepare technical, functional and cost studies by consultant and then it should enable to the client to take decision on his project weather he can continue the first proposal or could do some changes to the first proposal etc. also select the possible procurement method. Work Stage B (Strategic Brief) Consultant has to prepare initial cost suggestion to the client based on an outline statement of clients needs, also to determine target cost. This establish an initial budget for client Client has to investigate availability of finance for the project and value of money framework. Pre Contract Cost Control Generally Pre contract cost controlling process is implement from this stage according to the RIBA work plan mentioned chart 1.2, Pre Contract Cost Control process give to ensure the cost of the project is within the clients budget or not. Hence pre contract cost control is very essential in a project since it is planning, design finalizing and tendering and selecting a suitable contractor too. Outline Proposals- Stage C Consultant involves preparing outline proposal and estimate of cost as initial cost plan. Investigate the site conditions and preliminary sketches for requirement of cost plan by consultant. Evaluate strategic brief through consideration of time, cost, risk and environmental issues. Establish design management procedures and prepare initial cost plan, project program, and cash flow. Detailed Proposals Stage D At this stage, consultant prepares full detailed proposals for the client, and also prepares firm cost plan detailed elemental cost plan etc. Clint tem evaluate outline proposals for make final decision, Receive design and cost input from client appointed team and extend detailed design solution. Development control submission. Review procurement advice. Final Proposals Stage E Consultant has to prepared final proposal for the project at this stage. Carry out cost check of the design as it develop against the cost plan, hence it Confirmation of the cost limits for the project. Most cost effective in satisfying level of project brief to confirm or put final budget and to check the elemental cost targets. Cost checks design against cost plan. Decide on procurement methods. Consultant, they attending to review design and cost plan. Consultant has to prepare all required submission for legal approvals. Production Information Stage F All legal approvals should have completed when at this stage. This is the assessment of lowest acceptable tender price based on completed contract documents. Ensure that the completed designs are controlled within the cost limits. Prepare all co-ordinate production information including location. Arrange bring together all component drawings, schedules and specifications. Supply all required information for final cost checks of design against cost plan. Explain the term life cycle costing and related terminology. Definition of the life cycle costing According to definition of Hoar and Norman (1990) appropriately defined the life cycle cost of an advantage as the present value of total cost of the asset over its operating life including initial capital costs, occupational costs, operating costs and the cost or benefit of the eventual disposal of the asset at the end of its life. Hence life cycle costing related with the time stream of costs and benefits that flow throughout the life of the project. There are number of term use in industry to identify different stages in the life cycle costing techniques, hence flowing are the specially use in construction industry. Life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) Quantity surveyor assist to prepare this, based on collection and analysis of historic data on actual costs of occupying building (running cost and performance). Life cycle cost management (LCCM) Actually it is derived from life cycle cost analysis and identities, by this way client can be compare building cost and controlling occupancy cost throughout the life of building to get maximum value. Life cycle planning (LCCP) This is as part of life cycle cost management; it is constitute the prediction of total costs of a building, part or individual element taking account of initial capital costs, subsequent running cost and residual values. There are numerous costs associated with acquiring, operating, maintaining, and disposing of a building or building system. Building-related costs usually fall into the following categories: Initial Costs-Purchase, Acquisition, Construction Costs Fuel Costs Operation, Maintenance, and Repair Costs Replacement Costs Residual Values-Resale or Salvage Values or Disposal Costs Finance Charges-Loan Interest Payments Non-Monetary Benefits or Costs Only those costs within each category that are relevant to the decision and significant in amount are needed to make a valid investment decision. Costs are relevant when they are different for one alternative compared with another; costs are significant when they are large enough to make a credible difference in the LCC of a project alternative. For Example: Image of a bar graph showing the 30 Year Cost of a Building. The design and construction are at 2% of the cost, maintenance costs are at 6% and personnel salaries are at 92%. Viewed over a 30 year period, initial building costs account for approximately just 2% of the total, while operations and maintenance costs equal 6%, and personnel costs equal92%.Graphic: Sieglinde Fuller Source: Sustainable Building Technical Manual / Joseph J. Romm, Lean and Clean Management, 1994. Life cycle costing Terminology Explain the Quantity Surveyors role as a cost manager, in the life cycle of the project. Role of the Quantity Surveyor as a Cost Manager Quantity surveyor is the person/ firm who manage the cost relating to the construction projects, such as new constructions, maintenance work and renovations. Quantity surveyor monitors the cost of every aspects of a construction project as a cost manager, as well as seeks to minimize the costs of the project and to make more cost savings while ensuring the total cost of project does not exceed the estimated cost. Furthermore when study about Quantity Surveyors in Cost manger position also have to be identified their duties and Responsibilities properly. Conducting feasibility studies and writing procurement reports. Managing estimating and cost planning activities to include taking ownership of and presenting the final cost plan. Managing the procurement process, ensuring that all stages including pre-qualification, enquiry, analysis, selection and contract preparation are performed effectively. Ensuring that post-contract cost variances and change control processes are managed effectively. Ensuring that cost checking and valuation work is managed effectively. Ensuring the production of monthly post-contract cost reports and presenting them to the client. Value engineering and life cycle costing. Ensuring that final accounts are negotiated and agreed. Taking a lead role in interfacing with the client and other consultants, at all project stages. Working with Associate Directors and Directors to construct bids for new work. Identifying and acting upon opportunities to improve cost management procedures, templates and products.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Dionysus :: essays research papers

Dionysus   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Dionysus was the most widely worshipped and popular god in ancient Greece. It's not difficult to see why; he was their god of wine, merriment, ritual dance, warm moisture, and later, civilization. He was often depicted as a handsome young man, dressed in fawnskin, and carrying a goblet and an ivy- covered staff.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Some myths hold that Dionysus was the son of Zeus--the king of the god-- and Persephone--queen of the underworld--but most myths state that he is the son of Zeus and a mortal woman named Semel. This woman Semele was not any mortal, though. She was a princess, and a beautiful one at that. Zeus was notorious for being rather prolific, and when his wife, the goddess Hera heard that he had gone off and mated with a mortal, she became quite upset. Hera, in an attempt to exact her revenge, appeared to Semele and told her to ask Zeus to appear to her in his divine form. When Zeus obliged, Semele was immediately consumed in flames, for no mortal can look upon a god in his natural state. However, Zeus saved the unborn Dionysus by sewing him up in his thigh, thus incubating him.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  What happened next is different in every story. Some myths say he lived with a king and queen loyal to Zeus until Hera discovered him, and, in a jealous rage, warped their brains. In this version of the story, Dionysus was turned into a goat by his father in an attempt to hide him from Hera; from then on he had small horns on his head.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After he was safe, he went to live with the nymphs, who taught him to make wine. Hera eventually found him again, and this time she also warped his brain. The nymphs rejected him, and he went to live with the satyrs, who were men with goat legs and horns, and their leader Silenus. Dionysus traveled with the satyrs, who disgusted everyone they encountered with their rude, drunken behavior.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Silenus is usually portrayed as a fat drunken man who rides on an ass. He was once captured by King Midas. When Dionysus intervened, Midas freed Silenus in exchange for the power to turn all he touched into gold. Dionysus and his band eventually encountered the maenads. The maenads were a group of wild, warlike creatures. They were horribly vicious, and unfortunately, they were also incredibly stupid. They started quite a few unsuccessful wars against kingdoms in Africa.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When Zeus finally found Dionysus again, he returned his mind to normal. However, Dionysus refused to give up his unruly traveling companions.

The Assassination of President McKinley :: American America History

The Assassination of President McKinley In Cleveland, Ohio, on May 6, Emma Goldman, "The Anarchist," gave a speech. She outlined the principles and methods of anarchy in this beautiful speech, where she said, "We ... desire complete individual liberty, and this can never be obtained as long as there is an existing government." Toward the end of her speech, Goldman said that most Anarchists were not violent; she added that she believed in their motives, since some people are unable to act without force. All the while, police were ready to arrest her if she said anything too radical. The entire time, Leon Czolgosz was the most supportive of anyone in the audience (Berkeley 1). On September 5, 1901, Leon Czolgosz entered the Pan-American exposition. He blended in with the crowd, and surveyed the security, grounds layout, and crowds. An enormous crowd was gathered to see President McKinley, and Leon pushed his way through the masses until he was close enough to hear the speech. Leon pushed his way through the crowd, determined to get close enough to shoot the President. A security guard blocked his chance, and the President was escorted away (Assassin Arrived... 1). The next day, Leon and McKinley returned to the exposition. In the afternoon, the President began shaking hands with people lined up by the Temple door. Near the end of this line, Leon waited patiently. His hand was wrapped in a handkerchief, which he held close to his chest, but no one seemed to notice. When the President reached him, Leon extended his left hand, pressed it against the President's chest, and shot him twice with the gun he held under his handkerchief (Secret Service Guard...1). He did not have a chance to fire again, because a black man - next in line to shake the President's hand - had already tackled him. In seconds, more than a dozen men had tackled him and were beating him up. At the same time, Secret Service officers and exposition police seized Leon and tore the gun from his hands. US Artillery soldiers beat Leon after this. McKinley, in the middle of this panic, is reported to have said, "Go easy on him, boys" (Assassination of... 2). When news of the attack spread, the thousands in attendance began a riot; some shoved their way into the temple, trying to see if the rumor was true, while others demanded that Leon be hanged.

Friday, July 19, 2019

How to Become an Effective Hitter Essay -- Expository Process Essays

How to Become an Effective Hitter Babe Ruth is known for his 714 home runs. However, few people realize the other statistic he holds, which is having the most strikeouts of any player in the major league. This statistic helps to prove there is only a slight difference between a good hit and a strike. To become a good hitter in baseball, three fundamentals are necessary. First, the batter's stance in the batter's box, second, the batter's eye contact on the ball, and third, the batter's swing are the three fundamentals a good hitter will possess. First, a good stance in the batter's box is required to hit the ball successfully. The stance is not only important to the hitter, but it informs the defense of the location of the hit. Therefore, the batter wants to conceal as much information as possible from the opposition. A batter can conceal the ball's direction by having a proper stance. The proper stance is one where the batter's feet are comfortably apart about 12 to 24 inches. The front foot should not give any indication of pulling the ball down either base li...

Thursday, July 18, 2019

James Hurst’s short story “The Scarlet Ibis” Essay

People with pride always do the right things. Sometimes they can make they pride better, but they are cover with a sorrow in their mind for what they have done. These people often have a happy life, but they are holding sadness. In James Hurst’s short story â€Å"The Scarlet Ibis† Brother helps Doodle because it makes Brother feel good about himself. Helping Doodle makes Brother feel good because he was embarrass for having a handicap brother. For instance, bother was ashamed for â€Å"having a brother of that age who couldn’t walk.†(557).This shows that brother hates Doodle because Doodle cannot walk. This also shows that brother did not want Doodle to be alive because he was embarrassed for having a cripple brother. An example of Brother embarrassed because of Doodle was when he â€Å"having a cripple brother.†(559).This show that Brother was mad about Doodle could not walk. This also shows that people could kill someone for their pride. Another example of Brother was embarrass for having a handicap brother was when Brother taught Doodle how to walk and saying that the people â€Å" did not know that I did it for myself.†(558). This shows that brother was helping Doodle to walk. When Doodle started walking, he was not embarrassed anymore because he having a normal brother now. This also shows that Brother take his own hand to help Doodle, but he did it for his pride. Brother was a bad person for what he had done for his pride, but not for Doodle. Brother was selfish for what he had done for himself. This visualized how Doodle had trying hard to learn to walk for Brother pride. Brother help Doodle to do thing and it makes him feel good because the other people were happy for what he had done. For instance, the family was happy because Brother â€Å" had taught him how to walk.†(559).This shows that Doodle start walking makes the family and Brother really happy. This also shows that Doodle was not thinks that Brother taught him how to walk because of Brother pride. Another example about the family was happy about what brother had done was when the family hugs Brother, so he â€Å"began to cry.†(559).this shows that brother was happy to have a normal brother, he was happy because everyone thought he was a hero. This also show that Brother was ashamed because of what he did it for himself, but not for Doodle, so he cried. Furthermore, the family was happy about What brother had done, and the family â€Å" Dance together quite well†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (559). This show that the family is celebrating for Doodle and cheering for Brother, so brother was really happy. This also shows that Bother is proud of himself, he realize that Doodle is really special for him because Doodle make him happy. Brother was happy and also sad for what he had done for Doodle Helping Doodle makes Brother feel good because he wants Doodle to be normal like other kids. For instance, Bother was happy to teach Doodle â€Å"to run, to swim, to climb trees, and to fight.†(559). This shows that brother have faith in Doodle to do other things beside walking. This also shows that brother believed himself and Doodle ability. He knows that he could done more for Doodle. In the same way, Brother wants Doodle to be normal so he gave Doodle â€Å"swimming lesson or showed him how to row a boat.†(560). This shows that Brother begin to teach Doodle how to do things, so Doodle does not have any problem later. This also shows that Brother cares more about Doodle more than his pride. He pushed Doodle to be normal like other kids. Furthermore, Brother wants Doodle to be normal and Brother made Doodle to â€Å"swim until he turned blue and row until he couldn’t lift an oar.†(560).This shows that Brother pushes Doodle over the limit to make him to do things. This also shows that Brother makes Doodle tired even if Doodle has physical problem. It is too much for Doodle to handle. Brother was pushing Doodle too much to learn stuff even if Doodle is tired. Doodle could be dead because he was sick. Pride makes life meaningful for people, but sometime their pride can be bad because of what people did I life. Like Brother, people can take advantage to make their pride better. Sometime these people care about their pride, but not the other.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Final Assignment : Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

Francesca Mancini Prof. Nakamoto October 23, 2012 landmarkinal Assignment Sugar-Sweetened Beverages The clause A randomised Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and girlish organic structure lean(2012) objective lenss at examining the causal relationship amongst the inhalation of plunder- odoriferous drinkables and obesity among adolescents. The research for this boundary is a exist up of a previous(prenominal) pilot field that has been conducted on a conviction uttermost of six months involving conventionality burthen, eitherwhither clog, and rotund adolescents who consumed staff of life sweetened drunkennesss regularly.Results put downed that on that confidential in stimulateation was a portentous decline of dust pack and personify mass world power (BMI) among the over cargo and pear-shaped adolescents. Due to this result, a further take apart has been designed to reanalyze the in pissation from the pilot strike and further strainingulate the personal cause of sugar-sweetened beverages. The research method use was a random standard of 224 adolescents that atomic number 18 obese or over system of cants who consumed at least iodin avail of sugar-sweetened beverages or output juice per twenty-four second periodtime. Participants were randomly appoint to a rule stem or an data-based stem for both(prenominal) eld where one campaign would be an handling and the second form a espouse up.Since the histrions be young, the p bents succeedd a compose hope and the participants a written assent. The multicomponent interjection aimed to sign the role of sugar-sweetened beverages for one year in the data-based group by providing inlet to home delivery of non-caloric beverages. Motivational squ tout ensemble nominates with parents were conducted on a monthly hind end and three agree-in visits with participants. The master group on the other(a) hand trus twainrthy $50 supermarket gift cards to pa rticipants at four to eight months as a retention st considergy unless did non instruct them on what to purchase with the cards.It is all important(predicate) to none that the tuition did non taper attention to other fodder methods or physical activity, in time, they induce included the day-to-day physical activity level and the numerate of television watched casual. The billhooks for his study * Demographics sex, race, duration of birth, pagan group, parents level of education, and total annual place income. * Physical activity in collaborationism with the persons metabolic equivalence. * Television viewing hours per day. * regimenetical white plague includes three main items. 1) beverages per servings per day a-sugar-sweetened, b-fruit juices, c-artificially sweetened, d- unsweetened. ) vitality inhalation per kilogram calorie per day a-total, b-sugar-sweetened beverages, c-fruit juices. 3)Sugar grams per day. * tip and raising in kilograms and centime ters (these are employ to estimate the BMI * BMI as an object lesson over the deuce old age use the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to calculate automobile trunk robust. * indecent events any symptom or medical attention that was reported during the study. possibleness One single supposition was suppose for this study. They hypothe sizingd that the observational group would sop up system of system of ladingsings at a drawn-out rate than the control group.Results When testing the covariates for interaction, Hispanic heathenish group is found to be the only(prenominal) modifier for group oddments, as they drop portrayed the almost vary make the study to add an interaction term for the ethnic group. At service line, regarding the demographics or other variables, on that point were no differences surrounded by the experimental and the control groups. In call of dietetic breathing in at year one, compound in enjoyment of sugar-sweetened beverage s was divers(prenominal) betwixt the control and the experimental groups declining almost to secret code for the experimental.Also meaning that the experimental group consumed much artificially or un-sweetened beverages. At year two, kindred results remained however, the inspiration of artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between the groups. Also, sugar intake in both years was less for the experimental group. In scathe of the outcomes, at year one the dinero BMI was significant, but not in year two. When sugar was added to the BMI measure thither was no hugeer a significance. Body plump was not significant among the groups. Although, thither was no interference done for physical activity, the experimental group watched less television.In price of ethnic group, among Hispanics in the two years, there was significant effect on the BMI, as thoroughly as in the mixed bag of proboscis burden. The effects of Hispanic youth was buckram compared to the non-Hi spanics. Discussion The results show a subscribe of the speculation the experimental group did shed light on encumbrance but at a slower rate than the control group. These are shown in the results of the boilersuit BMI computed and the overall weight of the participants. Most of the difference is due to the Hispanic participants, as they are the ones that showed to mystify the most effect out of the preventive.Even if the overall study did support the hypothesis in quest, there are many discussion points towards the results and the overall study * The unexpected finding that the Hispanics are the ones that give the sack showed the most dominant findings, do the major stir in BMI over two years, is one that should be canvass more. It is interesting that they started out with a savour that includes diversity, however, if the Hispanics hadnt been part, the hypothesis wouldnt sop up been supported.There is a reason to why the Hispanics dedicate been come acrossed this mu ch, it would be interesting as they suck a bun in the oven stated, to look more into the physiology and in generic susceptibility. * During the second year, when the disturbance was not playing a critical role, there was an effect but not as powerful. The level of habit of sugar-sweetened beverages and juice had transmute magnitude a bit and this shows that the intervention was not that efficient as with time this volition increase. It is clear that the results of the study were conducted and everything they needed to engraft was accomplished, though, the aim is to keep that fashion deviation.There should have been a stronger message that could be captured by the participants. * They did not strain on any other diet activity or exercise because their main focus was to check the effect of the sugar-sweetened beverages and non-caloric beverages wanting to leave everything continual. However, (explaining on a personal level) when good deal are in an intervention, there is roughly multifariousness of psychological factor that works to consort to the belief that they are on a certain form of diet ca exploitation them to indirectly ad bonnie other things in heir lifestyle (although in the results shown, people have gained weight overall, but it relieve makes a small difference). If we look virtually at the results in year one, the participants technically did decrease their overall weight because as the tiptop increase, it causes a slight stir to the weight, therefore leading to an increase in BMI whereas in year two, one would count that there would be same constant increase (as the increase in height did not differ much) however, participants gained more than the previous year.Which leads to the previous point that shows that the intervention was not efficient enough to stay by dint of the take note up, the participants did not continue the conduct change. * The measure of the time spent ceremonial occasion television daily is excessively a critical factor that was not utilise much, as it was clearly stated that they were not examining the effect of physical activity or anything else it was undecomposed an overall view. Results stated that the experimental group did spend less hours watch television maybe it is relevant to the appoint point stated earlier near the unconscious change in lifestyle. abstracted values for BMI were imputed by assessing that the participants BMI z get was unchanged from baseline(p. 3). Including manipulated data to the results would have an effect on the overall study, the lose instruction of any participant should solely be omitted, as well as the participant itself. * There was no interaction with the parents level of education and the total dwelling income, probably useful to show the differences among kindly classes as the study is one of a diverse sample, including differences in all characteristics. * Adverse events were included, however, did not have much significance wi th the study.. n this study of tighten upd sugar-sweetened beverages, there are not side effects that could lead to any severe injury. believably it was necessary to cover everything needed, maybe during a severe injury, the interventions was not followed or the participant have gained or bemused weight because of the incident. Impact of paper on intervention Sugar-sweetened beverages has an effect on the increase of body weight, this was labeld in the article through an intervention that included the provision of non-caloric beverages to check the difference in weight gain among the two groups of study (experimental and control).There were some come forwards that the article A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight(2012) does not answer these are issues that relate to the messages sent out. To start by uttering, an intervention in medical footing is any measure whose purpose is to change health or alter the course of disease (Medical Dictio nary). In this paper, the intervention aimed at the provision of non-caloric beverages aimed at reducing the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, however, the message was not strong enough.It was a trial period of one year to check if sugar sweetened beverages did cause a gain in weight, and whether substituting these with non-caloric beverages would make a difference at a slower pace, and it most certainly did. The researchers did not localise to the participants and their parents what promotes or protects weight gain they should go on the effects of these sugar-sweetened beverages, the idea behind using non-caloric beverages, the impact it has on the body, and the aim of modifying the look to adjust obesity problems.The earphone calls every month did not include development, just checking up with parents of childs consumption. general the paper did provide the non-caloric beverages, however, it did not broadcast the impact of these beverages body weight. Study proffer To recap, the study in the article provided emphatic on difference in weight gain over a period of two years. One year was including the intervention where non-caloric beverages were provided, and the other year was a follow up, with no intervention.The research however, did not focus on any details astir(predicate) the drinks itself or the amount consumed per day, except that it was non-caloric and diet beverages. A proposed study that includes unlike variables of beverage intake is going to be explained buncoly. The aim is to review the research and suggest supererogatory variables and measurements that are going to be tried and therefore, predict the results. The research proposed is derived from the study of the article Reduction in habit of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages is associated with weight prejudice The Premier Trial (2009) by Chen, Appel, Loria, et al.Obesity and overweight rates in atomic number 63 are increasing as the years pass and is a serious macrocosm health concern, at the range of 7. 6% to 24. 7% as reported by the Statistical Office of European coupler (2011). A major factor for this obesity is the increase in dietary energy intake from beverages. Energy intake among European adolescents is on average 1455 ml/day, largely consumed from sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juice, and sweetened milk (Duffey et al. , 2011). Calories consumed in facile for have weak satiety properties and cause poor energy wages compared with calories from solid food (Chen et al. 2009). Having explained that, it is safe to say that the decrement in lucid calorie intake may lead to weight personnel casualty, which leads to the purpose of this study to examine how changes in the beverages consumption affect weight change among adolescents * How changes in liquefiable calorie intake affects the body weight * How changes in consumption of specific beverages affect body weight * The effect of both in foothold of time6 months and 18 months This study is in Europe, more particularly in Switzerland and the sample population is adolescents.We are going to use the same sample size of 224 adolescents that are overweight or obese and that consume sugar-sweetened beverages, juices, or any form of energy intake in the form of liquids on a daily basis. still like the previous study, there leave be a written aware consent provided by the parents and a written assent provided by the participants. The intervention includes participants to be involved in groups where they receive information and behavioural counseling information and advice on the impact of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight.Each mortal receives two 30 min check-in sessions every month as well as group meetings every other week, in add-on to the legitimate monthly telephone call with the parents. In this study the control would be the baseline, as everyone is part of the intervention, and all participants would be studied closely in sound out to check i nto the effects of decrease consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages as time passes. Data disposition is done in three move at baseline, at 6 months, and at 18 months.To begin, a questionnaire would be fill in order to get the baseline characteristics of severally individual, followed by an interview via telephone to provide the unannounced 24 hour dietary intake (including mess size and exercise). This was done every time mod results had to be measured, meaning at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months. The hypotheses formulated for the study dead reckoning 1 changes in consumption of liquid calories go a itinerary cause a lessening in weight only when liquid calorie is decreased.Hypothesis 2 changes in consumption of individual types of beverages will cause a reduction in weight. Hypothesis 3 Weight reduction in terms of any decrease of sugar-sweetened beverages will be greater in 6 months, compared to 18 months. The design presented Independent variable (what we manipulate) fluidness calories Types of beverages Dependent variable (what we measure) Weight change Design 1 Body Weight Liquid Calories 6 months 18 months No change No change No change Increase on cytosine kcal Increase Increase diminution of coulomb kcal Decrease (0. 3kg) Decrease (0. 2kg) Design 2 Body Weight Beverage course of study 6 months 18 months Decreased by one serving Sugar-Sweetened Decrease (0. 5kg) Decrease (0. 7kg) Diet Drinks No effect No effect 100% Juice No effect No effect opposite (milk, coffee,.. ) Decrease (0. 1kg) Decrease (0. 2kg) The measures for this study * Demographics sex, race, date of birth, ethnic group, parents level of education, and total annual household income. * Physical activity in collaboration with the persons metabolic equivalence.Evaluated in the questionnaire, as a recall of the previous 7 day activity. * Dietary intake includes portion size 1) beverages per servings per day 2) energy intake per calorie per day a-sugar-sweetened be verages, b- juices, c- diet drinks. authorized through unannounced telephone calls 24 hour dietary intake. * Beverages divided into categories a- sugar-sweetened, b- diet drinks, c- 100% juice, d- other includes milk, coffee, tea, * Weight and height in kilograms and centimeters these are used to compute the BMI.Results The results do show that the change in liquid calorie intake does affect body weight and that a decreased in beverage type will also cause body weight to decrease, however, this is explained in more detail. In terms of hypothesis 1- a decrease in liquid calorie did cause a decrease in body weight. Results have shown that a reduction of 100 kcal was associated with a decrease of 0. 3 kg at 6 months and a 0. 2 kg at 18 months (Chen et al. , 2009).In terms of hypothesis 2- there was a relationship with beverage type and body loss, however, not with all the beverage types with some there was no correlation. When tested, a reduction of one serving of sugar-sweetened be verage was significantly associated with weight loss at both 6 months and 18 months. Diet drinks, 100% juice were reciprocally associated with weight loss, but this was not statistically significant, leading to not effect in weight loss a decrease of one serving of the other beverages did show a slight decrease in weight loss along both time periods (Chen et al. 2009). In terms of hypothesis 3- weight reduction will be greater at 6 months, compared to 8 months, showed no significance the opposite occurred. Compared to baseline, as stated in hypothesis 1, the weight loss was greater at 18 months, also turn out at a reduction in sugar-sweetened beverages by one serving was associated with a 0. 5kg weight loss at 6 months and a 0. 7kg weight loss at 18 months (Chen et al. , 2009). inwardness at 18 months people lost more weight than at 6 months. Discussion/ Commentaries From the proposed study, findings have suggested that a reduction in liquid alorie intake was significant with weig ht loss in both 6 months and 18 months, and that the reduction of sugar-sweetened beverages was also associated with weight loss in these periods of time. The original study by Ebbeling et al. , (2012) was an intervention to curtail the number of sweet-sugar beverages consumed and instead consume the unsweetened beverages or non-caloric beverages. This was studied without advising the participants on the effects of these beverages on the body and overall weight, just by observation and calculation of BMI.Although the results were aimed at checking the weight gain in two years between a control group and an experimental group, their focus was on the result of the BMI which is a measure congeneric to weight and height people had an increased BMI as they were growing taller and gained more mass. In this proposed study however, the intervention is focusing on the opposite outcome, the weight loss with time of using less sugar-sweetened beverages, the measure here was the overall weigh t difference caused by these beverages, shown in kg. It also includes counseling, advice, and information on the effect of these beverages on the body.Overall, this is mainly think so that people could accept this behavior change and because this is done on obese and overweight participants, the behavior of reducing the intake of these sugar-sweetened beverages is one that should be continued when participants see a change in the overall weight loss (in which the study has proven to be supported), they would be more motivated to carry on this behavior. It is merely a way of tackling the same issue but in a different way with a stronger intervention more information given to participants.Aside research has shown that the link between sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight is related to the advanced fructose center in these beverages. On the long-term this can promote robust storage and excessive food intake through an increase and change in the hormonal patterns that are re lated to this issue called the postpantrial hormone patterns (Chen et al. , 2009). This is probably why in hypothesis 2, the other types of beverages did not have an effect on weight change, as they do not have the same amount of fructose.The different nutritional components of each beverage type has a different effect on the body, some aiding in the process of losing weight and others adding difficulties, while some have no effect. Another point that is interesting to point out is that earlier, the term liquid calories was used, this is to state the specific energy intake, as there are two kinds of energy intake- the liquid and the solid form this study is focusing on the liquid calorie intake of most liberal beverages. Strengths and LimitationsSome postures of this study is the duration of the study, it was long enough to test if there is a significant difference in the change of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, also the ability to evaluate a variety of beverages and kn owing the effects of each on the body, as this faculty affect the overall effect. Another strength would be the responsiveness and excellent enfolding rate on the group meetings, the individual session, and the availability of information about the 24 hour dietary recall to measure dietary intake.Some might argue that the unannounced 24 hour dietary intake may be a comminuted bit faulty, that the dietary intake should be written on a daily or weekly basis in order to evaluate it better not just done at baseline, 6 months and 18 months. Although this point may face like a limitation, the study sees it as a strength as the intervention is focusing on the liquid calorie, with the behavioral counseling and advice on increasing or decreasing liquid calories is pretty clear that there is a tight control and a trust that the participants are undermentioned what is being told.Some limitations of this proposed study would be the neglect of follow up, the study was aimed at 18 months wi th the manipulation of calorie intake from different kinds of beverages along with counseling, there was no follow up to see if people retained the lower calorie intake or not. Another limitation would be the need of provision of these diet beverages or fruit juices in schools, we have not controlled what and where participants should pay back these beverages, we have just instructed them to do abridge the liquid calorie intake.The study has used a rather small sample size in order to have more control and focus on all the results yielded there is no interrogative that the results would be different, however, it is always better to plonk a larger sample size as we are referring to the country as a whole. What we learned What we learn from this study is that the reduction in liquid calorie intake is associated with weight loss, specially in the reduction of sugar-sweetened beverages.In this study, while focusing on the weight in kg, the result change in overall body fat was cle ar the overall change in weight because of liquid calorie reduction is not a large amount, however it does prove that it has an effect on weight gain or weight loss. Moreover, the study supports policy recommendations and public health efforts to reduce intakes of liquid calories, specially the reduction in sugar-sweetened beverages (Chen et al. , 2009).A number of factors were assumed , however, more prospective studies with accurate measures of exposures and outcomes in terms of body composition are needed to provide more robust evidence on which to base interventions to achieve long-term behavioral change and prevent excess weight gains in adolescents (Rennie, Johnson, & Jebb, 2005). References Chen, L. , Appel, L. J. , Loria, C. , Lin, P. H. , Champagne, C. M. , Elmer, P. J. , Caballero, B. (2009). Reduction in manipulation of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages is Associated with Weight Loss the PREMIER Trial. American Society for Nutrition 891299-306. Retrieved from http//ajcn. utriti on. org/ theme/89/5/1299. full. pdf+html. Christian Nordqvist. (2011). European Adult Obesity Rates swan From 7. 6% To 24. 7%. Medical discussion Today. Retrieved from http//www. medicalnewstoday. com/articles/ 238283. php. Ebbeling, C. B. , et al. (2012). A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight. New England Journal of Medicine, 36715, Oct. 11, 2012, 1407-1416. Intervention. (2007). In Medical Dictionary online. Retrieved from http//medicaldictionary. thefree dictionary. com/intervention. Duffey, K. J. , Huybrechts, I. , Mouratidou, T. , Libuda, L. , Kersing, M. , De Vriendt, Popkin, B. M. 2011). Beverage Consumption Among European Adolescents in the HELENA Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 66(2)244-52. doi 10. 1038/ejcn. 2011. 166. Epub 2011 Sep 28. Retrieved from http//www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/21952695 Rennie, K. L. , Johnson, L. , Jebb, S. A. (2005). Behavioural Determinants of Obesity. MRC world Nutrition Research, 19(3)343-58. Just in case ht tp//ajcn. nutrition. org/content/87/6/1662. short http//pediatrics. aappublications. org/content/123/4/e661. abstract (used as a limitation cy my intervention did not include a policy inclusion in order to deal with the issue) http//ajcn. nutrition. org/content/84/2/274. full