Thursday, March 19, 2020

Free Essays on A History Paper

Hinton Rowan Helper and George Fitzhugh both had strong feelings regarding slavery and Northern and southern society. George Fizhugh believed that the north’s definition of equality of rights, and liberty was somewhat altered. George Fitzhugh believed that the north â€Å"enslaved† more people than the south in the sense that people that had money and land were the â€Å"new masters† of the poor, and were crueler than any southern slave owner. Fitzhugh, furthermore stated that the slaves in the south experienced numerous more rewards than any free white land worker that were over worked and under paid. Fitzhugh’s argument was that slaves didn’t have to worry about where they were to sleep, or about raising enough money to feed his family, as many white land workers in the north had to do. In the south all these things were provided for the slaves. Another argument was that the slave owners cared more about their slaves than the employers in the north, even through old age of the slave. Hinton Rowan Helper’s views on the north and south were somewhat different. He felt that the north was smart to have employees rather than slaves working in the field. Although Helper was a proud southern citizen, he felt that the south was being very nieve about how well the north was doing. Although southerners didn’t pay their slaves as the north did their field hands, the north was doing far better agriculturally than the south. The statistics from 1850 prove that the free states were making double, if not more, the amounts of wheat bushels and oats than the south. On top of doing better agriculturally they also had the best industry in the nation. All of the south went north for everything from books to clothing, and Helper knew that this put the south in a huge disadvantage. Helper wanted the south to keep it’s money circulating in the south, not given to the north. He felt that the only way for the south to get out of it’s... Free Essays on A History Paper Free Essays on A History Paper Hinton Rowan Helper and George Fitzhugh both had strong feelings regarding slavery and Northern and southern society. George Fizhugh believed that the north’s definition of equality of rights, and liberty was somewhat altered. George Fitzhugh believed that the north â€Å"enslaved† more people than the south in the sense that people that had money and land were the â€Å"new masters† of the poor, and were crueler than any southern slave owner. Fitzhugh, furthermore stated that the slaves in the south experienced numerous more rewards than any free white land worker that were over worked and under paid. Fitzhugh’s argument was that slaves didn’t have to worry about where they were to sleep, or about raising enough money to feed his family, as many white land workers in the north had to do. In the south all these things were provided for the slaves. Another argument was that the slave owners cared more about their slaves than the employers in the north, even through old age of the slave. Hinton Rowan Helper’s views on the north and south were somewhat different. He felt that the north was smart to have employees rather than slaves working in the field. Although Helper was a proud southern citizen, he felt that the south was being very nieve about how well the north was doing. Although southerners didn’t pay their slaves as the north did their field hands, the north was doing far better agriculturally than the south. The statistics from 1850 prove that the free states were making double, if not more, the amounts of wheat bushels and oats than the south. On top of doing better agriculturally they also had the best industry in the nation. All of the south went north for everything from books to clothing, and Helper knew that this put the south in a huge disadvantage. Helper wanted the south to keep it’s money circulating in the south, not given to the north. He felt that the only way for the south to get out of it’s...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Weird tourist attractions across the globe. Read more

Weird tourist attractions across the globe. Read more Top 6 weird tourist attractions around the world Halloween tours gain popularity among common travelers, as they allow you to explore the creepiest places on our planet. We’ve made a list of tourist spots that will set your imagination on fire. For all those, who love things that go bump in the night and can’t live without the mysterious, we have a treat: The Giant’s Causeway, Northern Ireland. Basalt columns, shaped in the form of a giant’s palm, are known to be one of the best sites in Northern Ireland. The odd structure that dates back to the days when Anglo-Saxons ruled Britain resembles a fantastic composition out of a fairy tale and is popular among tourists, who want a touch of history to their traveling routine. The Tianzi Mountains, China. Located in the Hunan Province in China, these peaks are nothing short of the ordinary. They are often covered in mist, and fog never ceases to flow over the cliffs. Many people say this is because the place is sacred, and tourists are attracted by sense of wonder that is present in Tianzi. You can take a car to the nearby village and later choose one of the trails to soak in the views. Besides, the magical sight of the mountains inspired film directors to create â€Å"Avatar†. The floating cliffs that we see in the movie are certainly a tribute to the Tianzi. The Nasca Lines, Peru. These strange geometric figures and animalistic images, etched into Pampa de San Josà ©, remain a mystery and excite a traveler’s mind anytime one comes closer for examination. Visible only from a distance and from a tower, located nearby, these lines may serve as an evidence of an ancient civilization that once inhabited the barren lands. What makes this sight even more exciting is the art of performance. The Nasca made the images stretch in one single line, and some of the shapes and forms are still not explained by science. Socotra Island, Yemen. Socotra Island may not belong to Africa geographically, but its unique flora causes scientists to open their mouths in awe. The island is mainly comprised of barren lands, covered with various species of fruits and plants. Most of them look bizarre to a European eye, and the biodiversity that is present on Socotra can make anyone speechless. Travelers love Socotra for its unbelievable atmosphere and the feeling of otherworldliness that engulfs you once you step on this land. Among the species that are particularly eccentric we can name the dragon’s blood tree with its extensive root system and a crown that looks majestic and scary. Chocolate Hills of Bohol Island, the Philippines. Conical in shape, these hills were once coral deposits. UNESCO named them one of the world's natural wonders, though some of the scientists claim their origin to be man-made. However, the hills are now more than 1, 000 years old, and when the rainy season is over, they gradually turn brown. This is why people associate them with chocolate cones and ice cream every time they are mentioned in the press. Goblin Valley State Park, Utah, USA. Though it may look like a Martian surface from the distance, this site has nothing to do with space. Situated two miles away from Salt Lake City, strange concrete formations earned their name due to their eerie shape. Scientists claim that years of erosion and exposure to wind and sand have caused these structures to look the way they do now. You can take a drive from Salt Lake City to see the goblin monuments with your own eyes – the impression is all the more creepy as they are located in the middle of a barren plain.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Journal Entry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 5

Journal Entry - Essay Example These and many other issues have made it necessary that all stakeholders in the nursing fraternity should seek to be active when it comes to developing health regulations and policies. This is contrary to the existing scenario in which government policy makers and not healthcare professionals are developing them. With the increasing complex landscape of patient care, it is the role of the nurses and nurse leaders to devise measures of providing the required care. This is because nurses are the healthcare professionals who execute all the roles required to foster faster and better recovery of patients. Additionally, they spend the most time beside patients’ beds. One of the major ways of addressing this is by implementing the all-round foci as taught in nursing school that range from preventive care, patient communication, improving efficiency, cost containment, and more importantly preventing relapse and costly returns to healthcare institutions by the patients. In a nutshell, the nurse can only be able to implement such if they become active in developing health policies and regulations since they understand the patients’ needs and welfare than do the federal and state bodies. The landscape of patient care is expanding and varying rapidly, and efficient strategies such those m entioned can only be identified and customized for the good of patients if healthcare professionals are allowed the necessary support and freedom. Nurses should take up the challenge of being politically active because it is a sacrifice required to bring a better healthcare system into existence. Political skills are required in addition to energy, time, will, and resources of power. One way to become politically active is by providing first-person perspectives on matters healthcare by highlighting the impacts that certain regulations, bills, or decisions are bound to affect the healthcare fraternity. This includes patients and

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Not Your Dream Team Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Not Your Dream Team - Assignment Example The first stage is formation where the team members will come together with the aim of fulfilling a goal. The second is the storming stage where each member is struggling for his or her ideas to be heard and therefore marked by chaos and conflicts. The third stage is the norming stage where now the members come to know each other and start accepting each other’s ideas. The next is the performing stage where the group now focuses on achieving the goal and hence no conflict at this stage. Finally, having achieved its purpose, the group adjourns. 2. Mallory joined Think Link as assistant marketing manager for new products; two software programs were being designed to help high school students learn algebra and geometry. Murray’s manager is Lin Chen (marketing manager). Other members on the cross-functional development team with her are Todd Schlotsky (senior programmer); Sean Traynor (vice-president for marketing); Joyce Rothman (a former high school teacher who co-founded Think Link; she works only part-time in the company); and Harlow Gray (educational consultant). In this paragraph, the bases of power are mentioned and this will determine the decisions made in the organization. Sean for example is the Vice president and he has therefore the most authority in the company based on the positional power he is holding. The decisions Sean will make will therefore not be contested or argued with as a result of his prestigious position in the organization. Sean holds legitimate power due to his position as the vice-president, Lin and Todd and Mallory hold expert power as a result of their knowledge in their different fields. Mallory, Joyce and Harlow also hold referent power due to their ability to be consulted by others in different places. Sean also holds coercive power which is portrayed later when he fires Lin. The above team also hold reward power which they use to give bonus on software. 3. After her first week on the job, Mallory was considering qu itting. â€Å"These people are so opinionated and competitive,† she complained. Sean, Joyce and Harlow, in Mallory’s opinion, don’t listen to anyone’s ideas at team meetings; they only talk about their concerns. â€Å"Sean thinks his rank entitles him to make all the decisions in the team. Joyce thinks her opinions should carry more weight because she was instrumental in creating the company. And Harlow views everyone as less knowledgeable than he is and discounts their information as â€Å"out-of-date†, because he consults with the â€Å"outside† – other software firms and school districts. Lin, who is supposed to have the leadership role in this team, is passive and quiet. While he sends out agendas, and organizes meetings, people ignore him at the meeting; when he is speaking, people interrupt him or talk over him. He appears to avoid all the conflict and lack of progress by rushing off to another meeting. The team didn’t a ccomplish any agenda items at the first meeting I was at.† When a group is forming, it undergoes several stages and the hardest and most challenging one is the storming stage where every member wants his or her opinion to be taken into consideration. This is exactly the stage this group is in where the members are not willing to listen to each other’

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Margaret Thatcher and Martin Luther King Speech Comparison

Margaret Thatcher and Martin Luther King Speech Comparison With reference to the two speakers Margaret Thatcher and Martin Luther King, compare the way in which English may be used for rhetorical purposes in political and religious speeches. Collins Dictionary defines ‘rhetoric’ as ‘the art or study of using language effectively and persuasively’ and it is no surprise that such a skill is often in evidence with great politicians or religious leaders. The need to actively promote ones message in a good light, especially if it is a controversial decision that will be open to debate, is vital and can mean the difference between success and failure. Indoctrination or persuasion of the masses has, since the very dawn of primitive communication, set opinionated beings against each other and propelled those who are able to work effectively within the recognised techniques of rhetoric into the limelight of society. Indeed, historical figures from Gandhi to Hitler have used vocal stimulus to spread their message and influence the masses, and through various techniques, well constructed rhetorical speeches are effectively ‘audience management devices’ giving their listeners cues, reference po ints and the suggested positions of applause. Within this essay, I will be investigation Thatcher’s and King’s manipulation of such techniques.   Beginning with Margaret Thatcher’s speech to the Conservative Party Bournemouth conference in 1990, it is interesting to note how she begins her speech with an impassioned mention of a former colleague killed in Ireland. Building up to what will later become a key issue in her speech, she utilizes emotive language ‘Before he was murdered by the IRA, Ian taught us how a civilised community should respond to such an outrage’ insinuating the absolute guilt of the IRA and to set a tone of compassion within her rhetoric that must have softened the hearts of her audience and helped gain ‘their approval and support for her and their messages and sentiments.’ However, in Martin Luther Kings 1963 ‘I have a dream’ address to a great wave of protesting civil rights campaigners, the tone is somewhat different. Rather than speaking to a more contained group of political figures, he is responsible for enflaming the hearts of thousands of concerned individuals who may well however have come from all walks of life, and his opening rhetoric seems to reflect this. Rather than Thatcher’s heartfelt vote of sympathy for a colleague presumably known by most within the conference, Luther Kings audiences only common ground is their struggle and desire to take action, and he attempts to arrest the feeling of this need. ‘I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.’   Here, King is dealing in emotive absolutes, building up the importance of the event, and stirring he crowd into excitement and attentiveness, ready to take in the re st of his great speech. Indeed, religious and civil rights speakers, like Luther King, often depend rather more on verbal eloquence and spontaneous creativity than their political counterparts. In a setting that is less formal and subject to passions rather than cleverly crafted spin, little of these speeches may be scribed in advance and an old African tradition of ‘call and response’ has been noted by the linguistic researchers ‘Keith and Whittenberger Keith (1986.) Indeed, this is evident several times over in Kings speech, firstly as a call to all in the first line, and then again with open comments ‘Let us not wallow in the valley of despair’ and of course, the famous ‘I have a dream’ statement. Both of these lines, and more in the speech besides, showcase this ‘call and response’, while one notes that in Margaret Thatcher’s speech she appears to address and name check ‘Mr President’ when she addresses her audience, offering a more official line of diction. It is also evident that King, in the style of such old African or Pentecostal preachers, uses stark proverbs and a great deal of imagery within his words to ensure that his point is shown starkly to the many different sections of the community, both educated and not, that may be watching him perform. Using metaphor in describing his peoples struggle to being dealt an unfair deal in society, ‘In a sense weve come to our nations capital to cash a check,’ he constructs an entire paragraph around the paradigm of the need for money, a common problem everyone can relate too, and thus brilliantly engages his audience. Thatcher of course has the luxury of a fully engaged audience and prefers to allude to very real policy discussion, and witty asides that a fully educated audience of Conservative members can appreciate, once again proving that targeting ones audience is extremely important in the process of exploiting rhetoric. However, despite these subtle differences, it is noticeable that the arts and techniques of rhetoric, as studied and scribed by the researcher Atkinson, are commonly used in both King’s and Thatcher’s speeches. Obviously, despite being different types of rhetoric, quasi-religious/political and straight political, an underlying need to hold attention and elicit response is needed and so it is unsurprising that the ‘three part list’ is noticeable in both of these speeches. In Thatcher one such example is ‘Theyre quite short speeches. [laughter][fo 9] Monosyllables even. [laughter] Short monosyllables’ and within Kings address ‘We cannot walk alone; and as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn back.’ Both obviously important moments in the speeches, Thatcher’s to insinuate a sense of party unity and witty aside, while Kings insists unrepentant solidarity and progress, the use of this ‘three point list’, simply a point made via the use of three specific components, is vital in amplifying general ideas and stimulating audience response. Coupled with this, and often obvious within such triplets, is the use of repetition, and to some extent rhyme, that is produced in these speeches. King repeats ‘I have a dream’ at the beginning of eight sentences rising to a feverish crescendo of spoken word politics to amplify and continuously reinforce his message (see end of his speech) and Thatcher uses the device more sparsely to achieve similar results. ‘new jobs. Better jobs. Cleaner jobs.’ Such ‘rhyming’ words coupled with exciting imagery within them (King uses ‘sweltering’ and ‘Oasis’ to compare the contemporary situation and his future vision of the state of Mississippi) can excite an audience and also give them a cue to respond in applause or a ‘holler back’ situation, depending on the nature of the address itself. Of course, we must also remember that these speakers will have used intonation and gesticulation not available in the transcripts of these speeches, but these are also very important in the art of successful rhetoric. The use of contrasts, and occasional symmetrical contrasts are also evident in both of these speeches; both Thatcher and King drawing on failures of others to highlight the superiority of the speaker’s favoured position. ‘I seemed to hear a strange sound emanating from Blackpool. And I thought at first it was seagulls. [laughter] Then I remembered that Labour was holding its annual Conference there’ and ‘And so weve come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.’ Although, of course, the tones of these voices are very different, Thatcher taking a ‘cheap shot’ at the Labour party while King is striving to keep his protest on the ‘high plane of dignity and discipline,’ they both contrast their message with failures of a rival institution or the system as a whole. Cynics could of course dismiss this element of rhetoric as merely a desperate attempt to cover up ones own lurking bad points with those of others, although if ski lfully done, it can help immensely to highlight these problems and bring down the audience perception of what could be seen as a rival problem. So, in conclusion and despite the differing social and political contexts of the situations, Thatcher’s and Kings speeches, although unsurprisingly differently constructed and clearly intended for different audiences, contain many similarities in the type of rhetorical devices they use to get their messages across. Thatcher’s arguably more familiar and amusing speech is certainly more frivolous and snide at times, while Kings ‘I have a dream’ seems more spontaneous and impassioned, but in terms of historical importance, this seems unsurprising. Indeed, even looking at a more modern speech, that of Tony Blair’s 2003 declaration of British war on Iraq, similar techniques can be witnessed. Repetition and rhyme, ‘not why does it matter? But why does it matter so much?’ within a rhetorical question in this case; the use of a three part list ‘What changed his mind? The threat of force. From December †¦What changed his mind? The thre at of force. And what makes him†¦? The imminence of force’; and even an element of media call and response is in evidence ‘And now the world has to learn the lesson all over again.’ Of course, unlike Thatcher, there is no political backstabbing at a rival party, the situation would be deemed to important to go along that route, but he does nevertheless compare the way Saddam Hussain ran Iraq to the way the world should, in his view, progress. Indeed, it seems the art of rhetoric is largely formalized in terms of techniques, but can be used skilfully to push any doctrine in a creative and personal manner by an individual. Bibliography http://www.stanford.edu/dept/english/courses/sites/lunsford/pages/defs.htm http://www.margaretthatcher.com/Speeches/displaydocument.asp?docid=108217doctype=1 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/Ihaveadream.htm http://politics.guardian.co.uk/foreignaffairs/story/0,11538,916789,00.html Collins English Dictionary (Collins: 2005) Janet Maybin (Editor), Neil Mercer (Editor) From Conversation to Canon (English Language: Past,Present Future) (Taylor Francis: 1996) 130

Friday, January 17, 2020

A New Design Based Software Coupling Metric

A New Design Based Software Coupling Metric 001.png">ABsTRaNutmeg State—Thymineheincreasinanogramdemandfield-grade officerRsofttungstenarhenium QUalitymvitamin EasUrvitamin Emvitamin ENational Trusts HasledTOvitamin EtenTnutsIVvitamin ERvitamin Esvitamin EaRdegree CelsiussHIntosofttungstenarheniummvitamin ETRhode Islanddegree CelsiusssaneodymiumTheDelawaresVELOPmvitamin ENTOdegree FahrenheitsOdegree FahrenheitTtungstenarheniummvitamin ETricexcessivelycubic decimeters.CReating degree CelsiusOmPONvitamin ENational TruststungstenhicharheniumRvitamin EUsable issvitamin Evitamin ENasONeOdegree FahrenheitThebesT Pradegree CelsiussTiceininvitamin DUsTrytovitamin Day.ThymineOdegree CelsiussRvitamin Eatvitamin ERvitamin EUsabledegree CelsiussOmPONvitamin ENational TrustsThe depenvitamin Dvitamin Ency beTtungstenvitamin Evitamin ENvitamin Eachdegree CelsiussOmPONvitamin ENational TrustsHOuldbeascubic decimeterOtungstenas POUS Secret ServiceIBlupus erythematosus.Hydrogenencvitamin E,TOmaintainhighQUalitysofttungstenaRvitamin E, de Vvitamin Ecubic decimeterOpers needTOsTRhode IslandVvitamin Efield-grade officerRacubic decimeterOtungsten–degree CelsiussOUPledaneodymiumHIghlydegree CelsiussOhesIVvitamin EDelawaressIgN.Holmiumtungstenvitamin EVvitamin ER,asmnutTIOnedbymaNew YorkRvitamin Esvitamin EaRdegree Celsiusshers,degree CelsiussOUPcubic decimeterInanogramaneodymiums cOhesIONmvitamin ETRhode Islanddegree Celsiussscubic decimeterackfield-grade officerRmacubic decimeteraneodymiumsTaNvitamin Dardized Delawaresdegree FahrenheitinITIONaneodymiumTHUsfield-grade officerRvitamin Eachmvitamin ETricThereismOrheniumTHaNONeinterpretatION.ThymineHIsPaperINational TrustRovitamin DUdegree Celsiussvitamin EsOUrVIelectronic warfareOdegree Fahrenheitmvitamin EasUrvitamin EmentOdegree Fahrenheitdegree CelsiussOUPcubic decimeterInanogramfield-grade officerRJavaProjvitamin Edegree CelsiussTsaneodymiumOUrImPcubic decimetervitamin EmnutcheapnessIONaPPRoach.COUPLiNgmvitamin ETRhode Islanddegree Celsiusssarheniumdegree Celsiu ssalculaterectile dysfunctionaTchlorineasslupus erythematosusVELbydegree CelsiussONsideringThe rvitamin Ecubic decimeteratIONshelloPs beTtungstenvitamin Evitamin ENThemvitamin ETHOvitamin DsOdegree FahrenheitchlorineaUS Secret ServiceEs.AluminumsO,itis hundredOmPaRvitamin Evitamin DtungstenithEastern Timeablisheddegree CelsiussOUPLiNgmvitamin ETricCalciferolIThymine,aneodymiumitisfield-grade officerUNvitamin DTHaTPrOPOserectile dysfunctionmvitamin ETricIsmOrhenium Rvitamin ELiaBlupus erythematosusaneodymiumadegree Celsiussdegree CelsiussUratvitamin E. INvitamin Dex Terms—COUPLiNg,ChlorineassDisilverRam,maintenance,DIThymine,softtungstenarheniumQUalitY. I.INTRODUCTION The term â€Å"coupling† was foremost used in package technology by Stevens et Al. [ 1 ] in the yearss when structured scheduling was the norm. It was defined as â€Å"the step of the strength of association established by a connexion from one faculty to another† . In the context of object-oriented design, yoke is seen in footings of how one category is connected to another. Matching indicates the dependence of a category on the other category. High dependence may diminish reusability of the category and increase care attempt. A turning figure of dependences indicate an increasing likeliness for the functionality of the category to be broken by alterations made to other categories. Changes in one category might take to ruffle consequence. Besides, high yoke will take to more testing attempts and more clip spent on proving. Low yoke and high coherence facilitate comprehension activities, proving attempts, reuse, and care undertakings. Hence, there is a demand to cipher m atching automatically to cut down the measuring attempt, subjectiveness and possible mistakes. This paper introduces a manner to calculate matching prosodies. Since yoke is the grade of interaction between categories, the basic thought underlying all matching prosodies is really simple: number how many interclass interactions there are in the system. Nevertheless there is considerable fluctuation depending on what counts as an interaction, how the numeration is done and how the sums are normalized. StRnutgtHOdegree Fahrenheitdegree CelsiussOUPLiNg Besides the figure of dependences, every dependence has a certain strength associated with it. The strength of a dependence indicates how interconnected these two categories are. A high value for strength means two categories use each otheraˆYs methods and/or types really often. As a consequence, take downing matching between two categories that are strongly coupled is more complex. The strength of yoke is influenced strongly by the manner two categories are coupled:GramOvitamin Dchlorineass– In this instance there is merely a individual category. Multiple categories are merged into one doing a individual category. This type of yoke is the strongest as all methods/properties of the category can be called. A god category will typically hold low coherence as unrelated categories are merged into one. Chlorineass–chlorineassBivitamin DangerNutmeg StateIONacubic decimeter– Two different categories which are dependent bi-directionally. This yoke is still really strong as a alteration in a individual category might ensue in a alteration to the other category. This type of matching is less strong compared to the god category as the communicating is re-strained to the public api ( application programming interface ) of the category. Chlorineass–chlorineassUNIdahoIRvitamin Edegree CelsiussTIONacubic decimeter– Two different categories with one category being dependent upon the other. This type of matching is less strong compared to the bidirectional yoke because lone alterations to the one category potentially alter functionality of a different category. The undermentioned facets of a dependence besides affect the strength of yoke: NitrogenUmberOdegree Fahrenheitinteradegree CelsiussTION– Two categories that are coupled but the sum of yoke is minimum have a less strong yoke compared to two categories with a batch of interactions. Because the increased figure of interactions it becomes more complex to divide the two categories doing them coupled more strongly. This paper proposes a yoke metric which is based on interaction between category methods. The matrix developed utilizing the proposed attack can be used to find bidirectional or uni- directional interaction. Besides, this matrix can be easy verified through category diagram. II.STATE – OF- THE- Art Survey of the Troy and Zweben [ 2 ] on matching suggests that the yoke is one of the most important properties impacting the overall quality of the design. No by and large accepted metric exists for matching ; nevertheless, by and large, it is accepted that excessively much yoke in a design leads to increased system complexness [ 3 ] ; hence, high yoke is considered as unsought belongings. Following describes some of the known attempts that are made for mensurating yoke. Yourdon and Constantine define the yoke as a grade of mutuality between faculties [ 4 ] . Bansiya [ 5 ] besides defines matching as a dependence of an object on other objects in a design. He uses DCC ( Direct Class Coupling ) metric that counts the figure of categories that a category is straight related to. This metric includes the categories straight related by property declaration and message passing ( parameter list ) in methods. Chidamber and Kemmerer [ 6 ] have besides discussed the yoke in the context of OO paradigm, in their sentiment ; two categories are coupled ; if the method of one category uses any method or case of other category. CBO ( Matching between object categories ) prosodies counts the figure of conjugate categories. In CBO metric, a category is coupled to other category if it uses the method or property defined in other category. CBO gives insight into of import facets of package design. Excessive CBO does non advance reuse as an object relies excessively to a great extent on another to be reused independently. If inordinate yoke is found between objects it is advised to cut down the sum of matching through refactoring. If non, alterations to the conjugate objects in the hereafter could ensue in relationships being modified that are unexpected. Making mock objects to prove within the conjugate objects besides provides extra complexnesss between objects further increasing the boundlessly hard job of proving a system. However, CBO metric does non separate among different types of interactions between two categories. Briand et Al. [ 7 ] present a package metric suite which accounts for class-attribute, class- Montazeri [ 11 ] argue that matching between two categories should be multi-faceted instead than being a remarkable relation. In other words there should be many facets taken into history when mensurating the matching relationship between categories within a system. To capture the run-time analysis of matching which can alter because of the polymorphism – an array of dynamic matching prosodies have been proposed. Beszedes et Al. [ 12 ] proposed a Dynamic Function Coupling ( DFC ) metric to capture the propinquity of maps on the run-time stack to foretell change-proneness and impact sets. Hassoun et Al. [ 13 ] prove the construct of dynamic yoke and that it is so a new dimension of matching between objects within a run-time environment. They find that polymorphous systems demonstrate less matching overall compared to an indistinguishable system that does non utilize polymorphism. Arisholm [ 14 ] introduces a dynamic yoke suite to mensurate run-time behaviour of a system and happen similar consequences to Emam et Al. [ 15 ] in that the best prosodies among the suite were those that dealt with export. III.PROPOSED APPROACH Class yoke is calculated by mensurating the dependence relationships between methods of different categories considered. Depending on the maps calls made to methods of different category, we have came up with matching metric. Matching between categories is shown is signifier of matrix [ I ] [ J ] where I and J are both symbolic Numberss for categories. matrix [ I ] [ J ] = Number of times the „class iaˆY calls the maps of „class jaˆY . Using this matrix, we can besides cipher entire yoke as: method, and method-method relationships and show that there is correlativity between these matching measurings with fault- proneness. In add-on, they inject that the usage of friend within C++ ThymineOTacubic decimeterdegree CelsiussoupLiNgOdegree Fahrenheitadegree Celsiusscubic decimeterassIiˆ? Nitrogen i?? Jiˆ?1 maTRIten[I] [J] NitrogeniˆÂ ­1 where N is to can increase the fault-proneness of categories even more than other types of yoke. Binkley and Schach [ 8 ] propose a Yoke entire figure of categories. Besides, the mean yoke for a undertaking can be calculated as: Dependency Metric which measures alteration and fault-proneness at a finer grain compared to other prosodies that restrict their range to the category degree. Fenton and Pfleeger [ 9 ] recognize yoke as a pair-wise measuring of the faculties. They have discussed about Nitrogen AveRsilvervitamin Edegree CelsiussoupLiNgOdegree FahrenheitPROJEuropean UnionTiˆ? i?? Jiˆ?1 where N is entire figure of categories. degree CelsiussoupLiNgOdegree Fahrenheitacubic decimetercubic decimeterdegree Celsiusscubic decimeteraUS Secret Servicevitamin Es Nitrogen mensurating the yoke on ordinal graduated table and they have classified the yoke in six pair-wise faculty relationships on ordinal graduated table. To mensurate matching, an thought of set of categorization of pair-wise relationships between faculties x and Y is used ; get downing from relation R0, R1, R2 to Rn. Relationss are subscripted from the least dependent at the start and the most dependent at the terminal, so that Ri & A ; gt ; Rj for I & A ; gt ; j. Modules x and Ys are said to be the slackly conjugate if one value is someplace in the start ( near to zero ) and modules tens and Ys are said to be tightly coupled if one value is someplace in the terminal ( near to n ) . In [ 9 ] , they have non described their Model for mensurating matching in footings of OO paradigm. Most of OO prosodies to mensurate matching are the numeration prosodies, which counts the figure of times a category establishes an OO relationship with other category. Liu and Xu [ 10 ] have proposed an object-oriented metric suite that measures the magnitude of matching between categories and show that their suite offers a new dimension of measuring complementing other prosodies. Hitz and The elaborate model of the proposed metric calculation is shown in figure 1. The procedure of computation of this matrix and its confirmation can be divided into four stages: – Phase 1 purposes at developing the information constructions need for farther computations. The information constructions ( List ) developed aid in designation of methods, categories to which they belong and the bundles to which they belong. Phase 2 purposes at designation of tuple ( naming map, naming category, called map, called category ) for each map call made inside maps of a category In stage 3, the procedure of stage 2 is repeated for each category nowadays in undertaking.The matrix [ I ] [ J ] is developed in this stage In stage 4, the confirmation of consequence against category diagram is done by formalizing that each non-zero value in matrix implies a connexion between two matching categories. Fig. 1.Framework of Proposed Approach IV.ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE There is a Java Project ‘Product Tree ‘ holding categories: Custom Dialog, Dynamic Tree, Dynamic Tree Product and Product. Class diagram of ‘Product Tree ‘ is shown in figure 2. A.Phosphorushour anglesvitamin E1: LithiumsTvitamin Dvitamin EVELoperectile dysfunction 1 ) Classs along with their bundles: Fig. 2.Ccubic decimeterassDisilverRamOdegree Fahrenheit‘PhosphorusRoductTRvitamin Evitamin E ‘ GetProductText = Product, componentShown = CustomDialog, SetProduct = Product, GetProductType = Product, GetProduct=Product, main=DynamicTreeProduct, actionPerformed { Merchandise = prdtree, DynamicTree = prdtree, CustomDialog = prdtree, DynamicTreeProduct = prdtree } 2 ) List of method along with their categories: – { clearAndHide=CustomDialog, getHash=DynamicTree, windowClosing=CustomDialog, SetHashCode=Product, Product= Product, cretatAndShowGUI = DynamicTreeProduct, CustomDialog=CustomDialog, DynamicTree = DynamicTree, DremoveCurrentNode=DynamicTree, edit = DynamicTree, =DynamicTreeProduct, GetProductSymbol=Product, GetProductName = Product, getProduct = CustomDialog, GetHashCode=Product, DynamicTreeProduct=DynamicTreeProdu Nutmeg State, propertyChange = CustomDialog, addObject = DynamicTree } 3 ) List of get downing Lines Numberss of method inside category file: – { Merchandise = [ 9, 14, 17, 22, 25, 28, 31, 36, 39 ] , DynamicTree = [ 21, 36, 47, 56, 111, 125, 130 ] , CustomDialog = [ 30, 35, 78, 91, 104, 109, 171 ] , DynamicTreeProduct = [ 25, 54, 115, 130 ] } . Bacillus.Phosphorushour anglesvitamin E2: ThymineaKINgvitamin ExamPlupus erythematosusOdegree FahrenheitDysprosiumNamicTREE The map call to GetHashCode ( ) is found at the line figure 77,92 and these figure lies between 56 and 111 in list 3, therefore matching by sing the list 4 for Dynamic Tree, we can place the naming map – removeCurrent Node ( ) . Besides, utilizing List 2, we identify that GetHashCode ( ) belong to category Product. Hence, Called category, called map, naming category, naming map , no. of times call is Product, GetHashCode ( ) , DynamicTree, removeCurrentNode ( ) and 2 severally. C.Phosphorushour anglesvitamin E3:COUPLiNgMeteraTRnine The yoke matrix obtained for this undertaking is shown in tabular array I. Table I: Matching Matrix for ‘ProductTree ‘ TABLE II: Proposed Coupling and DIT For Different UndertakingsPhosphorusROJvitamin ENutmeg StateAvg. CalciferolInformation technologyAvg. CouPLinanogramKea1.680.17Anagram3.750.42Lamistra1.330.16JavaOperation1.750.09ProductTree4.300.92Besides a comparative graph is drawn to analyse the behaviour of proposed matching metric and DIT, as shown in Figure 3. 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 Avg. DIT Avg. Matching n the first row the value 2 in cell ProductTree [ CustomDialog ] [ Product ] implies that Custom Dialog calls 2 maps of Product which are viz. ( as confirmed from codification ) – GetHashCode ( ) , GetProductSymbol ( ) . Other nothing values in the row implies that no map of other categories is used in Custom Dialog. D.Phosphorushour anglesvitamin E4:Volteridegree FahrenheitIntelligence CommunityaTiONAgaINsTdegree Celsiusscubic decimeterassvitamin DIsilverRamvitamin Echlorineassvitamin DIsilverRam As evident from the category diagram, 1.Class Custom Dialog is merely dependent on category Product, therefore verifying the non zero value in Product column and other nothing values in row 1. 2.Class DynamicTree is merely dependent on category Product, therefore verifying the values in row 2. 3.Class DynamicTreeProduct is dependent on CustomDialog, DynamicTree and Product which is besides implied from row 3. 4.Class Merchandise in non dependent on any of other categories therefore all zero value in row 4 are right. V. RESULTS AND COMPARITION ANASYSIS To analyse the truth of proposed metric, the norm of proposed yoke and Depth of Inheritance Tree ( DIT ) is computed and compared for five big size Java based Open Source Software ( OSS ) . Comparative consequences are shown in Table 2 PhosphorusRojedegree CelsiussTNitrogenamvitamin E Fig. 3.Comparative Graph for Avg. Proposed Coupling and Avg. DIT Figure 3 shows that proposed matching gives more accurate value of matching since it considers heritage relationship along with other dependences like association, generalisation while DIT merely considered the heritage relationship between the categories. VI.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK In decision, the attack developed in this paper provides a manner to develop prosodies for matching at category degree. The metric can easy be verified through category diagram. The consequence can besides be used to analysis the undertaking and develop suggestion to better its yoke. The attack is developed into codification merely for Java undertakings. In future, we aim to develop the merchandise for other common linguistic communications like C # , C++ etc. Besides,calculation of matching at higher degrees, bundle degree will be done to demo how faculties of undertakings are dependent on each other. The constructs of polymorphism will be taken into consideration for future enterprises. VII. Reference [ 1 ] .W. Stevens, G. Myers, and L. Constantine. Structured design. IBM Systems Journal, 13 ( 2 ) :115-139, 1974. [ 2 ] . D.A. Troy and S.H. Zweben, â€Å" Measuring the Quality of Structured Designs, † Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 2, No. 2, June 1981, pp. 113 – 120. [ 3 ] .Harrison R. , Counsell S. , Nithi R. , â€Å"Coupling prosodies for object- oriented design† , Journal: Software Metrics Symposium, Metrics 1998. Fifth International pages: 150-157, 1998. [ 4 ] .Yourdon, E and Constantine, L.L. , Structured design, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,1979. [ 5 ] . J. Bansiya, â€Å"A Hierarchical Model for object- orientated Design Quality Assessment† IEEE Transaction on package technology, Vol.28, No.1, January 2002. [ 6 ] . S.R. Chidamber, C.F. Kemerer, Towards a prosodies suite for object-oriented design, Proceedings of the Conference on Object- Oriented Programming: Systems, Languages and Applications ( OOPSLA aˆY91 ) , 1991. [ 7 ] . Briand, L. , Devanbu, P. , Melo, W. : â€Å"An probe into matching steps for C++† , Proceedings of ICSE 1997, Boston, USA, 1997. [ 8 ] . B. Binkley and S. R. Schach. Validation of the yoke dependence metric as a forecaster of run-time failures and care steps. In Proceedings of the 1998 ( 20th ) International Conference on Software Engineering, pages 452- 455, Apr 1998. [ 9 ] . Norman E. Fenton, Shari Lawrence Pfleeger, â€Å"Software Prosodies: A Rigorous and Practical Approach† , PWS Publishing Company, 1998 [ 10 ] . D. Liu and S. Xu. New quality prosodies for object-oriented plans. In Eighth ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing, pages 870875, Jul 2007. [ 11 ] . M. Hitz and B. Montazeri. Measuring matching and coherence in object oriented systems. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Applied Corporate Computing, Monterrey, Mexico. , 1995. [ 12 ] . Beszedes, T. Gergely, S. Farago, T. Gyimothy, and F. Fischer. The dynamic map matching metric and its usage in package development. In CSMR '07. 11th European Conference on Software Care and Reengineering, pages 103-112, Mar 2007 [ 13 ] . Y. Hassoun, S. Counsell, and R. Johnson. Dynamic matching metric: cogent evidence of construct. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 152 ( 6 ) :273-279, Dec 2005. [ 14 ] . E. Arisholm. Dynamic matching steps for object-oriented package. In Proceedings of the Eigth IEEE Symposium on Software Metrics, pages 33-42, Jun 2002 [ 15 ] . K. E. Emam, W. Melo, and J. C. Machado. The anticipation of faulty categories utilizing object-oriented design prosodies. Journal of Systems and Software, 56 ( 1 ) :63-75, Feb 2001

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Biography of Stephen Biko, Anti-Apartheid Activist

Steve Biko (Born Bantu Stephen Biko; December 18, 1946–September 12, 1977) was one of South Africas most significant political activists and a leading founder of South Africas Black Consciousness Movement. His death in police detention in 1977 led to his being hailed a martyr of the anti-apartheid struggle. Fast Facts: Stephen Bantu (Steve) Biko Known For:  Prominent anti-apartheid activist, writer, founder of Black Consciousness Movement, considered a martyr after his death in a Pretoria prisonAlso Known As:  Bantu Stephen Biko, Steve Biko, Frank Talk (pseudonym)Born:  December 18, 1946 in King Williams Town, Eastern Cape, South AfricaParents: Mzingaye Biko and Nokuzola Macethe DunaDied:  September 12, 1977 in a Pretoria prison cell, South AfricaEducation: Lovedale College, St Francis College, University of Natal Medical SchoolPublished Works:  I Write What I like: Selected Writings by Steve Biko, The Testimony of Steve BikoSpouses/Partners: Ntsiki Mashalaba, Mamphela RampheleChildren: 2Notable Quote: The blacks are tired of standing at the touchlines to witness a game that they should be playing. They want to do things for themselves and all by themselves. Early Life and Education Stephen Bantu Biko was born on December 18, 1946, into a Xhosa  family. His father Mzingaye Biko worked as a policeman and later as a clerk in the King William’s Town Native Affairs office. His father achieved part of a university education through the University of South Africa (UNISA), the distance-learning university, but he died before completing his law degree. After his fathers death, Bikos mother Nokuzola Macethe Duna supported the family as a cook at Greys Hospital. From an early age, Steve Biko showed an interest in anti-apartheid politics. After being expelled from his first school, Lovedale College in the Eastern Cape, for anti-establishment behavior, he was transferred to St. Francis College, a Roman Catholic boarding school in Natal. From there he enrolled as a student at the University of Natal Medical School (in the universitys Black Section). While at medical school, Biko became involved with the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS). The union was dominated by white liberals and failed to represent the needs of black students. Dissatisfied, Biko resigned in 1969 and founded the South African Students Organisation (SASO). SASO was involved in providing legal aid and medical clinics, as well as helping to develop cottage industries for disadvantaged black communities. Biko and Black Consciousness In 1972 Biko was one of the founders of the Black Peoples Convention (BPC), working on social upliftment projects around Durban. The BPC effectively brought together roughly 70 different black consciousness groups and associations, such as the South African Students Movement (SASM), which later played a significant role in the 1976 uprisings, the National Association of Youth Organisations, and the Black Workers Project, which supported black workers whose unions were not recognized under the apartheid regime. Biko was elected as the first president of the BPC and was promptly expelled from medical school. He started working full-time for the Black Community Programme (BCP) in Durban, which he also helped found. Banned by the Apartheid Regime In 1973 Steve Biko was banned by the apartheid government. Under the ban, Biko was restricted to his hometown of Kings Williams Town in the Eastern Cape. He could no longer support the Black Community Programme in Durban, but he was able to continue working for the Black Peoples Convention. From King Williams Town, he helped set up the Zimele Trust Fund which assisted political prisoners and their families. Despite the ban, Biko was elected Honorary President of the BPC in January 1977. Detention Biko was detained and interrogated four times between August 1975 and September 1977 under Apartheid era anti-terrorism legislation. On August 21, 1977, Biko was detained by the Eastern Cape security police and held in Port Elizabeth. From the Walmer police cells, he was taken for interrogation at the security police headquarters. According to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa  report, on September 7, 1977, Biko sustained a head injury during interrogation, after which he acted strangely and was uncooperative. The doctors who examined him (naked, lying on a mat and manacled to a metal grille) initially disregarded overt signs of neurological injury. Death By September 11, Biko had slipped into a continual semi-conscious state and the police physician recommended a transfer to hospital. Biko was, however, transported 1,200 kilometers to Pretoria—a 12-hour journey which he made lying naked in the back of a Land Rover. A few hours later, on September 12, alone and still naked, lying on the floor of a cell in the Pretoria Central Prison, Biko died from brain damage. The Apartheid Governments Response South African Minister of Justice James (Jimmy) Kruger initially suggested Biko had died of a hunger strike and said that his death left him cold. The hunger strike story was dropped after local and international media pressure, especially from Donald Woods, the editor of the East London Daily Dispatch. It was revealed in the inquest that Biko had died of brain damage, but the magistrate failed to find anyone responsible. He ruled that Biko had died as a result of injuries sustained during a scuffle with security police while in detention. An Anti-Apartheid Martyr The brutal circumstances of Bikos death caused a worldwide outcry and he became a martyr and symbol of black resistance to the oppressive apartheid regime. As a result, the South African government banned a number of individuals (including Donald Woods) and organizations, especially those Black Consciousness groups closely associated with Biko. The United Nations Security Council responded by finally imposing an arms embargo against South Africa. Bikos family sued the state for damages in 1979 and settled out of court for R65,000 (then equivalent to $25,000). The three doctors connected with Bikos case were initially exonerated by the South African Medical Disciplinary Committee. It was not until a second inquiry in 1985, eight years after Bikos death, that any action was taken against them. The police officers responsible for Bikos death applied for amnesty during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings, which sat in Port Elizabeth in 1997. The Biko family did not ask the Commission to make a finding on his death. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa report, published by Macmillan in March 1999, said of Bikos death: The Commission finds that the death in detention of Mr Stephen Bantu Biko on 12 September 1977 was a gross human rights violation. Magistrate Marthinus Prins found that the members of the SAP were not implicated in his death. The magistrates finding contributed to the creation of a culture of impunity in the SAP. Despite the inquest finding no person responsible for his death, the Commission finds that, in view of the fact that Biko died in the custody of law enforcement officials, the probabilities are that he died as a result of injuries sustained during his detention. Legacy In 1987, Biko’s story was chronicled in the film  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Cry Freedom.† The hit song Biko, by Peter Gabriel, honored Steve Bikos legacy in 1980. Stephen Biko remains a model and hero in the struggle for autonomy and self-determination for people around the world. His writings, his life work, and his tragic death were all historically crucial to the momentum and success of the South African anti-apartheid movement. Nelson Mandela called Biko the spark that lit a veld fire across South Africa. Sources Mangcu, Xolela. Biko, A Biography. Tafelberg, 2012.Sahoboss. â€Å"Stephen Bantu Biko.†Ã‚  South African History Online, 4 Dec. 2017.Woods, Donald. Biko. Paddington Press, 1978.