Saturday, November 30, 2019
Is China a Neo-Mercantilist Nation Essay Is China a Neo-mercantilist nation? Definition: neo-mecantilism Neo-mercantilism is a policy regime that encourages exports, discourages imports, controls capital movement, and centralizes currency decisions in the hands of a central government. The objective of neo-mercantilist policies is to increase the level of foreign reserves held by the government, allowing more effective monetary policy and fiscal policy. This is generally believe to come at the cost of lower standards of living than an open economy would bring at the same time, but offers the advantages to the government in question of having greater autonomy and control.It is called neo- because of the change in emphasis from classical mercantilism on military development, to economic development, and its acceptance of a greater level of market determination of prices internally than was true of classical mercantilism. Its policy recommendations sometimes echo the mercantilism of the early modern period. These are generally protectionist measures in the form of high tariffs and other import restrictions to protect domestic industries combined with government intervention to promote industrial growth, especially manufacturing.At its simplest level, it proposes that economic independence and self-sufficiency are legitimate objectives for a nation to pursue, and systems of protection are justified to allow the nation to develop its industrial and commercial infrastructure to the point where it can compete on equal terms in international trade. In macro-economic terms, it emphasizes a fixed currency and autonomy over monetary policy over capital mobility. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/NeomercantilismProtectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between states through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow (according to proponents) fair competition between imports and goods and service produced domestically . Protectionism doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t protect you. PostNoon. com. April 27, 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012 This policy contrasts with free trade, where government barriers to trade are kept to a minimum. In recent years, it has become closely aligned with anti-globalization.The term is mostly used in the context of economics, where protectionism refers to policies or doctrines which protect businesses and workers within a country by restricting or regulating trade with foreign nations. Ã¢â¬Å"Xinhua (2012-05-24). Trade-oriented Economy Boosts Growth, Employment. CRI English. Retrieved 26 May 2012Ã¢â¬ A variety of policies have been used to achieve protectionist goals. These include: 1. Tariffs: Typically, tariffs (or taxes) are imposed on imported goods. Tariff rates usually vary according to the type of goods imported.Import tariffs will increase the cost to importers, and increase the price of imported goods in the local markets, thus lowering the quantity of goods imported, to favour lo cal producers. (see SmootÃ¢â¬âHawley Tariff Act) Tariffs may also be imposed on exports, and in an economy with floating exchange rates, export tariffs have similar effects as import tariffs. However, since export tariffs are often perceived as hurting local industries, while import tariffs are perceived as helping local industries, export tariffs are seldom implemented. 2.Import quotas: To reduce the quantity and therefore increase the market price of imported goods. The economic effects of an import quota is similar to that of a tariff, except that the tax revenue gain from a tariff will instead be distributed to those who receive import licenses. Economists often suggest that import licenses be auctioned to the highest bidder, or that import quotas be replaced by an equivalent tariff. 3. Administrative barriers: Countries are sometimes accused of using their various administrative rules (e. g. regarding food safety, environmental standards, electrical safety, etc. as a way to introduce barriers to imports. 4. Anti-dumping legislation: Supporters of anti-dumping laws argue that they prevent dumping of cheaper foreign goods that would cause local firms to close down. However, in practice, anti-dumping laws are usually used to impose trade tariffs on foreign exporters. 5. Direct subsidies: Government subsidies (in the form of lump-sum payments or cheap loans) are sometimes given to local firms that cannot compete well against imports. These subsidies are purported to protect local jobs, and to help local firms adjust to the world markets. . Export subsidies: Export subsidies are often used by governments to increase exports. Export subsidies have the opposite effect of export tariffs because exporters get payment, which is a percentage or proportion of the value of exported. Export subsidies increase the amount of trade, and in a country with floating exchange rates, have effects similar to import subsidies. 7. Exchange rate: manipulation: A government may intervene in the foreign exchange market to lower the value of its currency by selling its currency in the foreign exchange market.Doing so will raise the cost of imports and lower the cost of exports, leading to an improvement in its trade balance. However, such a policy is only effective in the short run, as it will most likely lead to inflation in the country, which will in turn raise the cost of exports, and reduce the relative price of imports. 8. International patent systems: There is an argument for viewing national patent systems as a cloak for protectionist trade policies at a national level.Two strands of this argument exist: one when patents held by one country form part of a system of exploitable relative advantage in trade negotiations against another, and a second where adhering to a worldwide system of patents confers good citizenship status despite de facto protectionism. Peter Drahos explains that States realized that patent systems could be used to cloak protection ist strategies. There were also reputational advantages for states to be seen to be sticking to intellectual property systems.One could attend the various revisions of the Paris and Berne conventions, participate in the cosmopolitan moral dialogue about the need to protect the fruits of authorial labor and inventive genius knowing all the while that ones domestic intellectual property system was a handy protectionist weapon. . ? Information Feudalism: Who Owns the Knowledge Economy?. London: Earthscan. 2002. p. 36. 9. Employment-based immigration restrictions, such as labor certification requirements or numerical caps on work visas. 10. Political campaigns advocating domestic consumption (e. . the Buy American campaign in the United States, which could be seen as an extra-legal promotion of protectionism. ) 11. Preferential governmental spending, such as the Buy American Act, federal legislation which called upon the United States government to prefer U. S. -made products in its pu rchases. In the modern trade arena many other initiatives besides tariffs have been called protectionist. For example, some commentators see developed countries efforts in imposing their own labor or environmental standards as protectionism.Also, the imposition of restrictive certification procedures on imports are seen in this light. Further, others point out that free trade agreements often have protectionist provisions such as intellectual property, copyright, and patent restrictions that benefit large corporations. These provisions restrict trade in music, movies, pharmaceuticals, software, and other manufactured items to high cost producers with quotas from low cost producers set to zero Protectionism doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t protect you and Ã¢â¬Å"The Conservative Nanny StateÃ¢â¬ http://en. wikipedia. rg/wiki/Protectionist#cite_note-4 Ascertain whether China indeed has those aspects in its economic policy, making it a truely neo-mercantilist nation: Perceived or Real. Possible implic ations: whether such a claim is Real or Perceived It is certainly possible to see ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic policies as neo-mercantilist, though people in China might not agree. Mercantilism was the economic doctrine that held that a country must export more than it imported in order to be economically strong. Mercantilist countries tried to promote exports and reduce imports. From the perspective of many Americans, China engages in such policies today.Many Americans believe that China artificially weakens its currency so that it will be easier for Chinese firms to export. China is also said to put informal barriers in the way of imports and to heavily subsidize exports. All of these actions can be seen as neo-mercantilism. I have said before this and I must emphasize it again. The fundamental premise of all U. S trade/globalization talks and discussions is that the participants are all playing the same game of liberal, neo-classical, free market, resource endowment and comparative ad vantage based free trade.This is a totally false premise that immediately gets the discussions off in irrelevant directions. The global economy is, in fact, sharply divided between those who are playing the free trade game and those who are playing some form of mercantilism. Of course, there is a spectrum of attitudes and policies, but roughly speaking the Anglo/American countries, North America, and parts of Europe are playing free trade. Most of Asia, much of South America, the Middle East, Germany and parts of Europe are playing neo-mercantilism. Its like watching tennis players trying to play a game with football players.It doesnt work, and insisting on playing by the rules doesnt help, because both sets of teams are playing by the rules of their game. In any case, there are a lot fewer clear cut rules than most people think. For example, probably the biggest single factor in the off-shoring of large chunks of U. S. based production and millions of jobs abroad has been the pack ages of financial investment incentives offered by China and others to global companies to encourage them to relocate production. More jobs have been lost to these packages than to currency manipulation.But you cant complain about rules violations because there are no rules to cover these investment incentives. At the federal level, American doesnt offer such incentives but there is not WTO or IMF or other rule against it. Nor is the United States proposing any rules in this area. Take the case of currency manipulation. China is surely manipulating its currency, but so have and do many other countries. Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and others all used currency manipulation is a major element of their export led miracle growth strategies.Some of these countries still to engage in currency manipulation and recently others such as Brazil and Switzerland have gotten into the game. Germany enjoys an undervalued currency because of its incorporation in the Euro. So here is a case where rule violation has been so prevalent that the violation is, in a way, the rule. So if something is to be done about it, that something will have to be a lot more powerful than a call for everyone to play by the same rules. We first need to get everyone playing the same game, and that is more likely to turn out to be football than tennis. hat options do others have to deal with such a perceived or real protectionist tendency? Possible implications: whether such a claim is Real or Perceived References http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Neomercantilism ? OBrien, Patrick Karl amp; Clesse, Armand. (editors) Two Hegemonies: Britain 1846-1914 and the United States 1941-2001. Aldershot: Ashgate. (2002). ? Helmut Schoeck amp; James W. Wiggins (editors), Central Planning and Neomercantilism. Pdf document  with scanned pages at the Ludwig von Mises Institute, Auburn, Alabama, USA Harold James (2009-06-30).The End of Globalization. Harvard University Press / google books. p. page 12. Ear ly criticism In The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith criticised the implicit political corruption of mercantilism in limiting the benefits of trade to the elite classes, and asserted that free trade should benefit all interested parties. Smith considered mercantilism a system where one country increases its power by getting excess gold on foreign transactions and it is a system created by merchants in order to get monopolies and easy profits.Some people believe that, because Britain adopted his call for free trade policies, it fell behind the United States and Germany by 1880, having gained its dominance under the mercantilism of Cromwell and Elizabeth I (when according to Adam Smith, England was much less mercantilist than Spain and Portugal, who decayed much due to their colonial mercantilist policies, their gold reserves all naturally flowed to Britain, who at the time had a much more efficient production system, even though Portugal and Spain had colonies with much richer natural r esources than Britain).The success of the United States and Germany drove the reintroduction of protectionist regulations in the rest of Europe. Between 1870Ã¢â¬â1910 United States achieved a global industrial dominance thanks to innovations in its production system (such as interchangeable parts), culminating with Fords Assembly line. These innovations strongly increased the international competitiveness of American products. Philosophy Neomercantilism is founded on the use of control of capital movement and discouraging of domestic consumption as a means of increasing foreign reserves and promoting capital development.This involves protectionism on a host of levels: both protection of domestic producers, discouraging of consumer imports, structural barriers to prevent entry of foreign companies into domestic markets, manipulation of the currency value against foreign currencies and limitations on foreign ownership of domestic corporations. While all nations engage in these acti vities to one degree or another, neo-mercantilism makes them the focus of economic policy. The purpose is to develop export markets to developed countries, and selectively acquire strategic capital, while keeping ownership of the asset base in domestic ands. This use of protectionism is criticized on grounds that go back to Adam Smiths The Wealth of Nations, which was aimed directly at classical mercantilist policies, and whose arguments are applied to neo-mercantilism. Namely that protectionism is effective as a means of fostering economic independence and national stability; and questioning the conclusion that it allows for sustainable development of the nations industrial base in the most efficient manner.Instead market economics has for over two centuries argued that increasing competition within the nation which will more effectively promote capital development and efficient allocation of resources. Free traders argue that by closing an economy, resources will be spent duplicat ing products that could more effectively be bought from abroad, and that there will be less development of exports which offer a comparative advantage.Market economists also argue that protection denies a nations own consumers the opportunity to buy at cheaper market prices when quotas or tariffs are imposed on imports. The subsidy of goods has also been advocated under neo-mercantilism. The fair trade movement claims that the protection of stability in emerging economies by guaranteeing a minimum purchase of goods at prices above those available in the current world markets, can contribute to restoring economic and social balance as well as promote social justice.Proponents of the fair trade movement argue that this may help to avoid the instability generated by the influence of global corporations on developed and developing nations. Neomercantilists claim that Free Trade results in a negative philosophy that a nation that is not competitive deserves to decline and perish, just li ke an under-performing corporation should. They argue that free trade does not work well whenever dumping is practiced or the international rules do not take into account the differences between wages, costs environmental regulations, and benets from nation to nation.For instance, there is a major difference in the cost of labour between a First World and Third World country for two equally skilled (or unskilled) sets of workers. When this economic reality is exploited by First World manufacturers, the benefits accrue to First World shareholders and consumers (and slightly improved work condition of exploited Third World workers) at the expense of privileged First World workers and their status in the middle class. An unquestioningly open policy in such circumstances may effectively devalue first world human capital investments in favor of financial capital investments. Consider for example, a person deciding whether to invest in training as an engineer or in a portfolio of financia l assets. Offshoring dramatically increases the effective supply of engineers, and as a result, their price will tend to decline (or grow at a slower rate).This decline will be increased by the lower cost of living in non-first world countries that would allow an engineer there to live much better on a lower nominal salary than their first world counterpart. (see purchasing power parity). This obviously is resulting in a huge immigration of skilled professionals from first-world countries to the third world, seeking a better quality of life. Faced with such prospects, rational economic agents will tend to avoid investing in human capital in areas that are vulnerable to such government-induced devaluation.Instead, they will shift training toward areas that are protected by regulation (for exampleÃ : careers in law, medicine, government) or social tradition (tenured academia), or socio-cultural factors (sales) or local physical requirements (nursing, medicine, construction). Alterna tively, rational economic agents in first world economies may choose to invest in financial assets instead of human capital Ã¢â¬â further eroding the long term ability of the first world country to produce and grow.As predicted by Adam Smith, this effect would reduce the inequality between First World and Third World countries, increasing overall fairness. Additionally, since cost of goods sold tends to be a larger component of total revenue than profits for most industries, production within a country may keep a larger portion of the total wealth within the local economy in comparison to dividends of profits and reduced prices on consumer goods. Furthermore, infrastructure investments may be reduced when production is shifted offshore.Over the longer term, such reduced local investments may reduce longer term productivity and economic growth. Neomercantilist economies on the other hand are often characterized by higher long term growth rates (that tend to flatten when neomercant ilist policies are halted). This claim unfortunately is not verified among developed nations, where Australia is both the main proponent of international free trade and among the first world countries, the one with the higher sustained growth during the last fifteen years.Also, as of February 2009, Australia is also the only developed country who is not officially in recession. The language of neomercantilist policies repeats the claims of earlier centuries that protective measures benefit the nation as a whole and that governmental intervention secures the wealth of the nation for future generations. In doing so, neomercantilist admit that the interests of large corporations might as often be represented and protected as pushed aside for the national interest.As a neomercantilist nations industrial production capacity and improving research and development grow as a threat to the hegemons (who usually unilaterally practices free-trade as Britain in the 19th century and the USA in t he late 20th century) domestic markets, so protectionism is the usual response, initially through political and, when necessary, military means (see World War I).
Monday, November 25, 2019
Every Man a King There is perhaps no individual in Louisiana History who was as charismatic, influential and Ã¢â¬Å"interestingÃ¢â¬ as that of Huey Long. In his autobiography, Every Man a King, Long shares his story from his childhood in the north Louisiana hills to his magnetic climb into Louisiana and American politics. Long, in Every Man a King, does an exemplary job in describing one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s most remarkable politicians [himself] through his own eyes. Long was born in Winnfield, Winn Parish, Louisiana on August 30, 1893, the eight of nine children of a farmer. As a small boy, Long absorbed many of the ideas that came out of the Populist Ã¢â¬â Socialist traditions that were found in the region. He attended High School but had many troubles with the school officials and other local authorities and left the school before graduation. He sold vegetable oil door-to-door for four years. He conducted a cake-baking contest in Shreveport. The winner was Rose McConnell; they married in 1913. He told her that he would hold a secondary state office and would then become, in succession, governor, senator, and president; a job that allowed him to travel to several states, including Oklahoma. He attended the University of Oklahoma briefly to study law. He decided to become a lawyer and enrolled in the law School of Tulane University. He took courses for a year and was admitted to the bar. He began practicing law in his native stat e in 1915; first in Winnfield, but later moved to Shreveport. Long prospered as a lawyer, but had only used law as a jumping board into politics. He was elected a member of the Louisiana railroad commission in 1918; and later, in 1921, it enlarged in power and became known as the Public Service Commission. Huey Long ran for governor in 1924 and lost, but ran again four years later Ã¢â¬â on the platform of building better roads and free textbooks for all school children. Long won. He was the first maj... Free Essays on Every Man A King Free Essays on Every Man A King Every Man a King There is perhaps no individual in Louisiana History who was as charismatic, influential and Ã¢â¬Å"interestingÃ¢â¬ as that of Huey Long. In his autobiography, Every Man a King, Long shares his story from his childhood in the north Louisiana hills to his magnetic climb into Louisiana and American politics. Long, in Every Man a King, does an exemplary job in describing one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s most remarkable politicians [himself] through his own eyes. Long was born in Winnfield, Winn Parish, Louisiana on August 30, 1893, the eight of nine children of a farmer. As a small boy, Long absorbed many of the ideas that came out of the Populist Ã¢â¬â Socialist traditions that were found in the region. He attended High School but had many troubles with the school officials and other local authorities and left the school before graduation. He sold vegetable oil door-to-door for four years. He conducted a cake-baking contest in Shreveport. The winner was Rose McConnell; they married in 1913. He told her that he would hold a secondary state office and would then become, in succession, governor, senator, and president; a job that allowed him to travel to several states, including Oklahoma. He attended the University of Oklahoma briefly to study law. He decided to become a lawyer and enrolled in the law School of Tulane University. He took courses for a year and was admitted to the bar. He began practicing law in his native stat e in 1915; first in Winnfield, but later moved to Shreveport. Long prospered as a lawyer, but had only used law as a jumping board into politics. He was elected a member of the Louisiana railroad commission in 1918; and later, in 1921, it enlarged in power and became known as the Public Service Commission. Huey Long ran for governor in 1924 and lost, but ran again four years later Ã¢â¬â on the platform of building better roads and free textbooks for all school children. Long won. He was the first maj...
Friday, November 22, 2019
Byzantine Art Essay There are many differences and similarities between the following two pieces of art; the Toreador Fresco and the Egyptian Fowling Scene. The Toreador Fresco is a fresco depicting a bull-leaping ceremony. It is from the palace at Knossos(Crete), Greece and from around 1450-1400 BCE. The Egyptian Fowling Scene is a mural painting from the tomb of Nebamun. It is from Thebes, Egypt and from the 18th Dynasty, ca. 1400-1350 BCE. The styles between these two periods are very different, but there are still a few similarities found between the two pieces of art. The Toreador Fresco depicts a bull in the center, and a man leaping over its back. There is a woman on each side of the bull. Unlike the Fowling Scene, this fresco includes a border. In the Egyptian Fowling Scene, Nebamun is standing in his boat, flushing birds from a papyrus swamp. He is holding his throwing stick in one hand and three birds in the other hand. He is accompanied by his wife and daughter who are both shown holding lotus flowers. In the Toreador Fresco, the bull is the central figure of the painting while in the Fowling Scene every space was filled with lively details such as lotus flowers and butterflies. As for the depiction of the human figure, in the Toreador Fresco, the human figures have stylized shapes with pinched waists and they are highly animated. Also, in order to distinguish between male and female, the artist painted the young women with fair skin and the man with dark skin. This was a widely accepted ancient Minoan convention. This is very different from the depiction of human figures in the Fowling Scene. The skin color of Nebamun, his daughter and his wife are all the same dark color. The artist scaled down their figures in proportion to their rank. The wife and daughter were much smaller than Nebamun. Also, in the Fowling Scene, the animals show a naturalism based on careful observation. One similarity between the paintings was that the human figures were painted with the profile pose with the full-view eye. Another similarity between the two paintings would be that they both represent rituals and traditions. The Toreador Fresco depicts the Minoan ceremony of bull-leaping while the Fowling Scene is a tomb painting showing that Nebamun is enjoying himself in the afterlife. Another difference would be that in the Toreador Fresco, the artist used curved lines to suggest the elasticity of the living and moving beings unlike the Fowling Scene where the depiction of movement was not represented very well. In the Toreador Fresco, the artist also elongated the animalÃ¢â¬â¢s shape to show the powerful charge of the bull and used sweeping lines to form a funnel of energy. It is easily seen how the depiction of movement is better represented in the Toreador Fresco than in the Fowling Scene. In the Fowling Scene, the artist used many different and lively colors whereas in the Toreador Fresco, there is not a great variety of colors used. In the Toreador Fresco, you can tell that it is Minoan art by the elegance of the Cretan figures, with their long, curly hair and proud and self-confident bearing. This distinguishes them from all other early figures styles. You can also see a few cultural differences between the two periods just by comparing the two paintings. The human figures in the paintings are all dressed much differently. Also, in ancient Egypt, the artists often used hierarchal scale in their paintings. They would make the size of the human figures larger based on their social status. That is why in the Fowling Scene, the wife and the daughter of Nebamun are much smaller than him. Whereas, in the Toreador Fresco, you do not see a hierarchal scale, the human figures are all the same size. In conclusion, there are many differences and similarities between the Toreador Fresco and the Fowling Scene. Both paintings represent rituals and traditions. Also, they both have figures painted with the profile pose. In the Toreador Fresco, it includes a border and the bull is the central figure. The human figures are wasp-waisted, and highly animated. The depiction of movement is much better represented in this piece of art than the Fowling Scene because the artist used curved lines to emphasize the movement of the figures. He also elongated the bullÃ¢â¬â¢s shape to show the powerful charge of the animal and used sweeping lines to form a funnel of energy. In comparison, in the Fowling Scene, the artists filled every space with lively details. The marsh is full of lotus flowers and butterflies. Although the depiction of movement is not shown as well as the Toreador Fresco, a variety of lively colors is shown in the painting. Unlike the Toreador Fresco, the hierarchal scale is shown in the Fowling Scene. Byzantine Art. (2016, Dec 08).
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Comparative and Contrast Christianity and Islam - Essay Example Ã Jesus is the Ã¢â¬Å"ChristÃ¢â¬ which means the Ã¢â¬Å"anointed oneÃ¢â¬ .Ã Jesus is the anointed one from God the Father who came to this world, fulfilled the Old Testament laws and prophecies, died on the cross, and rose from the dead physically (Slick, n.d.). The religion teaches that there is an existence of only one God. According to Christianity, God made the universe, the Earth and created Adam and Eve. Therefore, the best way to answer what Christianity is about is to say that it is a relationship with the true and living God through the person of Jesus Christ by whom we are forgiven of our sins and escape the righteous judgment of God (Slick, n.d.). Islam is regarded as one of the three central Abrahamic faiths along with Judaism and Christianity (Duncan, n.d.). Islam is derived from the word salaam which means Ã¢â¬Å"peaceÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"submission to GodÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"way to peaceÃ¢â¬ . The followers of Islam are the Ã¢â¬Å"MuslimsÃ¢â¬ or those who Ã¢â ¬Å"submitÃ¢â¬ to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will. Duncan (n.d.) described Islam as a universal religion that teaches that God is merciful and compassionate, and that promises the faithful worldly peace and equality and entrance to a sublime eternity. It is a monotheistic religion which believes only in the existence of one God. Comparing and Contrasting Islam and Christianity These are some of the main similarities between Christianity and Islam. Peter Jackson (n.d.) stated that both religions say that there is only One God. This God is the most sovereign and he rules the history. The two religions also believe in Jesus. However, there are quite differences in how they believe him. Another similarity is the existence of Angels. Both religions believe in the existence of angels which are the referred to as the messengers of God. Both religions have Prophets and prophecy which includes many of the same characters such as Abraham, David, Noah and the like (Jackson, n.d.). The two religions also b elieve the concept of Heaven and Hell and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s future judgment (Jackson, n.d.). Heaven is often portrayed as the holiest place in which people who have died continue to exist in an afterlife. Hell, on the other hand, is a place of suffering and punishment afterlife. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s judgment will determine whether a person will be sent to heaven or hell after death. Although these two religions are similar in many ways, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t deny that they differ in a lot of ideologies and theologies. In both religions God is the creator of everything and he is loving and forgiving (McLean, 2007). One major difference between the beliefs of Christians and Muslims regarding God is that while Christians believe in the Holy Trinity, or three persons in one divine nature, Muslims believe that God is only one person and that the Trinity is the belief in three Gods (McLean, 2007). The two religions differ in their founder. Muhammad is the founder of Islam and believed by Muslims to be perfe ct and sinless. In Christianity, the founder is Jesus. For Muslims, Muhammad was not only a religious leader, but also a political leader, which explains the common practice of integrated church and state in many Muslim countries (McLean, 2007). Both religions recognize Jesus but their beliefs about him vary. Islam and Christianity believe that Jesus was sinless, perfect and born of the Virgin Mary (McLean, 2007). The two religions accept that Jesus performed miracles and was ascended, or raised up, to God. McLean (2007) stated that Muslims see Jesus as a highly regarded prophet, while Christians see Him as God himself.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
The case of Libyan Arab Foreign Bank v Bankers Trust Co  QB 728 - Essay Example This traditional approach can be seen in the case of Serbian Loans3 any contract that is not a contract between states in their capacity as subjects of international law is based on the municipal [domestic] law of some country The rules thereof may be common to several states and may even be established by international conventions or customs, and in the latter case may possess the character of true international law governing relations between states.4 Therefore when it comes to investment contracts between states then it will have elements of adhering to the contractual word of the agreement; as well as the duty of care that the obligations are met as in public international contractual agreements. There has been a suggestion that cases that are on a private international matter allows the domestic court that makes the decision have an extraterritorial effect in imposing the obligation across borders, i.e. applying the higher standard of obligation and care that public internationa l law holds.5 On the other hand, the case of Holmes v Bangladesh Biman6 argued that foreign jurisdictions have no legitimate reason for subjecting their civil law on foreigners in their own country. Therefore these two cases make it difficult for correctly pursuing fraud, negligence or any circumstance that leads to an action when it is a case of foreign investment, i.e. where would you make the action and could you legally serve and enforce the action papers in foreign jurisdiction. However, it seems that the Libyan Bank Case was ahead of its time although it did surround a time of terrorism that was strikingly the same as the 9-11 attacks, such as the Lockerbie case. Therefore business law is under an obligation at state and at international levels to protect security, by imposing a duty for businesses to disclose any actions that would indicate terrorism, organized crime or threaten national and international security. Yet, as the following case study will illustrate that freezing assets is a common approach and duty of the bank that is mainly prevalent in Post 9-11, which the Libyan Bank Case failed to do.7 On 2 September, High Court of Justice in London rules in favor of Libya, orders Bankers Trust London to transfer to Libyan Arab Foreign Bank $131 million, plus accrued interest, that has been blocked by US assets freeze. US Treasury authorizes payment on 9 October. 2) In the era of terrorism and protection of the security of states, this means that financial institutions and international businesses are embarking on a different era of state co-operation. Companies are faced with being diligent in ensuring that they are free from fear of money laundering investigations. On of the strictest guidelines can be seen in the EU, therefore Barclays Bank Plc the fourth largest bank in the world ensures that their regulations are strict as their mother state is the UK. It has been realized that one of best methods to stop organized crime is through stricter policing of finances. The EU has become a lot stricter in this area, especially in respect to opening bank accounts and the ID required
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Race Relations Essay The article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The state of race relations [Editorial].Ã¢â¬ was written by M. Fletcher K. Thompson was taken from the Courier-Journal website http://www.courier-journal.com/ dated January 17, 2010 but was retrieved on January 27, 2010. The article focuses on racial profiling, particularly that of Black Americans by law enforcement. The first point that Fletcher Thompson makes is how the first year of President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s presidency brought the country face to face with racial schisms as much as it has promoted racial understanding. It is further implied that most Americans do not completely view President Obama as African American, citing that he is Ã¢â¬Å"Light-skinnedÃ¢â¬ , has no Ã¢â¬Å"Negro dialect.Ã¢â¬ and therefore not subjected to the same police brutality as that of dark skinned African Americans such as Harvard scholar Henry Louis Gates Jr. Gates was arrested by Cambridge, Mass Police Sgt. James Crowley for disorderly conduct after police were called to his home suspecting to find a black man breaking into the home; Bates did not have his keys. All charges were subsequently dropped. The second point suggests that while the gap between whites and blacks has narrowed in the past decade, racial profiling and the reconciliation President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s election seemed to have promised remains far off. President Obama seems to be what every red blooded American didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want in a president: black, little political experience, supposed Muslim beliefs and hope that Americans could become equal in all aspects of society. I am lead to believe the difference between African Americans and Anglo Americans is growing in a positive direction. As with Sgt. James Crowley, the view of black Americans remains relatively the same in a general sense, yet with the election of the first African American as President of The United States, the way law enforcement uses or collects data will be a basis for a unified change in how race is viewed throughout the world. The United States will reflect how those in authority are trained, educated and in cases where wrong doings are revealed, disciplined. No matter what changes are made in our future, wherever race is a factor there will be ignorance.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Is O.j. Guilty Or Not well it all started out like this,O.J. was at a club, and Nichole was there also. They met, and a couple days later they started to go out. While still married to Margerite Whitly. The papers didn't go through yet for a divorce, so legally he was still married to her, while going out with Nichole. The Evidence Against O.J. Simpson Mark Fuhrman said he saw a knife box on the ledge of the bath tub,and it wasn't collected for evidence, but the prosecutors say we have the knife that was from the box, that we didn't need the box. I think the detectives did asloppy job as in collecting evidence for the murder. Mark Fuhrman saw a finger print on the gate of nicholes home and it wasn't found by the collectors who were collecting all the evidence for the murder. O.k. there was a sock found at the murder scene that blood soaked right throught the sock, Mark believes that O.J. got blood on the sock, and it went through the sock. There was a glove found at the murder scene of the crime, a lot of people believe it was planted by racist Mark Fuhrman, but lots of people think it would be impossible to do that. Someone would be watching if he did, there's always someone watching you. When O.J. was trying on the glove I think he was pretednding they didn't fit but they really did. Nichole speaking from the grave There was a safety desposite box with a bunch of pictures in it. Pictures from when O.J. had beat her. The police had taken them and she put them all in the safety deposite box. There was a letter saying I'm sorry I hit you, that I'm really sorry, I am paying for my mistakes. There was a call made by Nichole Simpson, that her husband is beating her. You can hear him in the back round yelling at her. Why didn't the police answer to this call, obviously she was in trouble, they could hear him. There are 650,000 calls like this made to the police, only 350,000 are answered. Why didn't they answer this one they probablycould have saved two lives!!! There is a rumor going on that the police kept walking over the blood, thast they couldn't bring it in for D.N.A testing. How could they be sloppy in their work the are trained to do. If this is true are they covering up what O.J. actually did, because he's a famous football star, and actor O.J. Simpson had to pay 25 million for damages to the goldman and the Is O.J. Simpson Guilty Or Not? :: O.J. Simpson Is O.j. Guilty Or Not well it all started out like this,O.J. was at a club, and Nichole was there also. They met, and a couple days later they started to go out. While still married to Margerite Whitly. The papers didn't go through yet for a divorce, so legally he was still married to her, while going out with Nichole. The Evidence Against O.J. Simpson Mark Fuhrman said he saw a knife box on the ledge of the bath tub,and it wasn't collected for evidence, but the prosecutors say we have the knife that was from the box, that we didn't need the box. I think the detectives did asloppy job as in collecting evidence for the murder. Mark Fuhrman saw a finger print on the gate of nicholes home and it wasn't found by the collectors who were collecting all the evidence for the murder. O.k. there was a sock found at the murder scene that blood soaked right throught the sock, Mark believes that O.J. got blood on the sock, and it went through the sock. There was a glove found at the murder scene of the crime, a lot of people believe it was planted by racist Mark Fuhrman, but lots of people think it would be impossible to do that. Someone would be watching if he did, there's always someone watching you. When O.J. was trying on the glove I think he was pretednding they didn't fit but they really did. Nichole speaking from the grave There was a safety desposite box with a bunch of pictures in it. Pictures from when O.J. had beat her. The police had taken them and she put them all in the safety deposite box. There was a letter saying I'm sorry I hit you, that I'm really sorry, I am paying for my mistakes. There was a call made by Nichole Simpson, that her husband is beating her. You can hear him in the back round yelling at her. Why didn't the police answer to this call, obviously she was in trouble, they could hear him. There are 650,000 calls like this made to the police, only 350,000 are answered. Why didn't they answer this one they probablycould have saved two lives!!! There is a rumor going on that the police kept walking over the blood, thast they couldn't bring it in for D.N.A testing. How could they be sloppy in their work the are trained to do. If this is true are they covering up what O.J. actually did, because he's a famous football star, and actor O.J. Simpson had to pay 25 million for damages to the goldman and the
Monday, November 11, 2019
When studied, compared, and scrutinized, every religion Ã¢â¬â though said to be basically similar in that all believe and worship a god/gods Ã¢â¬â is actually different from each other in many respects. Before tackling diversities however, it is better to start with similarities. Many people view all adherents of any religions share at the very least certain commonalities such as historical roots, practices/rituals, and doctrines. In other words, to be considered religious, one must be a follower of a certain form of ritual/practice prescribed by a founder or guru, a worshiper or believer of a god Ã¢â¬â whatever or whoever that god might be. When looked at the surface, this might be true. However, looking closely and seeking out the nuances, one can find real diversities.For example, for a Jew and a Muslim, Christianity is a religion represented by Vatican and the pope as its representative. To the eyes of these two, no differences whatsoever are detected between a devout Ro man Catholic and a Protestant and a Mormon. Of course when investigated, marked differences come to the surface and the initial seemingly unified similarities are gone. Actually, differences are underscored every time there occurs along the way a deviation from the fundamentals of any religion. In the history of Christianity alone, schisms are either a deviation or a return to its roots (Adherents.com, 2007).Effects of Religious PluralismPost your response to this question: What effect do you think religious pluralism and the interfaith movement will have on the future of organized religion? Explain your answer.Religious pluralism and interfaith movement are recently advocated by proponents from different religions with certain political aims. For instance, during Holy Week in 1971, there were many demonstrations conducted by different religious groups to voice their antiwar protests. Professor Robert McAfee Brown of Stanford University was among those arrested for blocking the way to a draft board office in Berkeley, California. He said he chose to preach his sermon Ã¢â¬Å"not in a church but on a pavement, not with words but with a deedÃ¢â¬ (Microsoft Encarta, 2007). Though there are certain benefits to it in terms of rights, there are also disadvantages and innumerable damages that may have paved the way for further confusion in the future.In what ways has learning about world religions influenced the way you think about religion? Why is it important to learn about other peoples' beliefs and attitudes? How will you utilize this information in the future?Knowledge of World religionsKnowledge of the different religions of the world and their adherentsÃ¢â¬â¢ beliefs and practices is necessary for a better understanding of different peoples and cultures. Religious tolerance means differently when taken in the light of this endeavor. The ability to understand world religions and appreciate people because of their different persuasions and beliefs mean a mor e empathic and compassionate stance towards any group, ethnic or religious assemblage. Those who differ from us will not be seen as enemies, which oftentimes have become a common experience (Adherents.com, 2007).Reference:Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2008 ; http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html;Ã Microsoft Encarta. 2007.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
The snowfall was tumbling down, and the winds jolted you with their quick and frigid entrance. Crossing the street on a day like this could be a real struggle for anyone; however for an elderly man with a cane It Is nearly impossible without any assistance. So the elderly man waited until one would approach him and kindly guide him across the street. Over the course of him Alton, three people walked by; a policeman, a teacher, and a homeless man, however only one approached the elderly man.The first person to walk by the elderly man was the police officer. He was around 1 Inches tall and had a muscular build. Before the police officer walked by the elderly man, the police officer could tell that the elderly man needed help crossing the street. The roads were slippery, and the heavy snow was Impacting ones sight. However the police officer was already late for work, and by taking the time to help the elderly man cross the tree it would have made him even more late. Especially since th e weather conditions were not in his favor.So the police officer crossed the street unattended, and the elderly man started at the back of his head with his sorrowful eyes. The 2nd person to walk by the elderly man was a teacher. The teacher just finished a meal at her favorite restaurant, and had to cross the street to get to her car. She looked at the elderly man and knew right away that he wanted to cross the street, however needed assistance. She thought for a second than came to a conclusion hat she herself could not help because she would already have enough trouble crossing the street herself. Someone else will notice and help himÃ¢â¬ she thought to herself. So she crossed the street unattended, and once again the elderly man stared at the back of her head with his sorrowful eyes. The third person that walked by the elderly man was the homeless man. The elderly man turned his head and saw someone approaching him. It wasn't a police officer, or a teacher, however he saw som eone with a ripped Jacket, torn Jeans, and sorrowful eyes approach him.Yes, this time the elderly man was approached by a homeless man, however unlike the police officer, or the teacher, he approached the elderly man. The homeless man asked the elderly man if he needed help crossing the street, and the elderly man replied with a soft Ã¢â¬Å"yes pleaseÃ¢â¬ . So the homeless man crossed the street attended by and elderly man with Joyful eyes. The police officer, the teacher, and the homeless man all walked by the elderly man who was In need of help, however the only one that helped him was the man who was considered the lowest In society out f all of them.The police officer didn't help him because he was going to be late for work, the teacher did not help him because she thought someone else would help him, and the homeless man helped him Just out of moral Integrity. Interview By sesame-madam Unexpected approach the winds Jolted you with their quick and frigid entrance. Crossing the street on a day it is nearly impossible without any assistance. So the elderly man waited until one waiting, three people walked by; a policeman, a teacher, and a homeless man, he elderly man was the police officer.He was around 5Ã¢â¬ ³11 inches tall and had a slippery, and the heavy snow was impacting ones sight. However the police officer The 2nd person to walk by the elderly man was a teacher. The teacher Just finished a the police officer, or the teacher, he approached the elderly man. The homeless man homeless man all walked by the elderly man who was in need of help, however the only one that helped him was the man who was considered the lowest in society out him, and the homeless man helped him Just out of moral integrity. Interview Unless you are fascinated by the rich variation in human experience, qualitative interviewing will become drudgeryÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If participant observation means Ã¢â¬Ëwalk a mile in my shoes', then in-depth interviewing means Ã¢â¬Ëwalk a mile in my headÃ¢â¬ Interviews as conversations with a purpose conversational style but interviews are not naturally occurring conversations he interaction is one-sided the interviewer has an agenda interviewing requires skills the interaction is recorded Types of interviews There are at least 3 major types of interviews: 1. The standardized (formal or structured) interview 2.The unsubstantiated (informal or nondestructive) Interview 3. The compartmentalized (guidedsemistructured or focused) interview Standardized interview The standardized interview uses a formally structured schedule of interview questions. The interviewers are required to ask subjects to respond to each question. That all the questions have been worded in a manner that allo ws subjects to understand clearly what they are being asked The Unsubstantiated Interview In contrast to the rigidity of standardized interviews, unsubstantiated interviews do not utilize schedules of questions.Interviewers must develop, adapt, and generate questions and follow-up probes appropriate to the given situation and the central purpose of the investigation Complementarities interview This type of interview involves the implementation of a number of predetermined questions and/or special topics. These questions are typically asked of each interviewee in a systematic and consistent order, but he interviewers are allowed freedom to digress. Four types of questions 2. 3. 4. Essential Questions Extra Questions The row-Away Questions Probing Questions 1.Essential Questions C] Essential questions exclusively concern the central focus of the study C] They may be placed together or scattered throughout the survey, but they are geared toward eliciting specific desired information 2. Extra Questions [l Extra questions are those questions roughly equivalent to certain essential ones but worded slightly differently C] These are included in order to check on the reliability of responses (through examination f consistency in response sets) or to measure the possible influence a change of wording might have 3. Interview What do you enjoy most about your job? What I enjoy most about my job is simply helping people get the physique that they desire. Nothing feels better than helping others, especially with something that you enjoy dearly. I've been into fitness just about all my life and I plan on doing it for as long as I physically can. 4. Do you work in a Ã¢â¬Å"teamÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"independentÃ¢â¬ environment? For the most part, work independently, because it is just me and whoever my client is for that time being on a one on one fitness session. It can be also considered a team environment because I am around my coworkers just about my whole shift.There are also other trainers here at my job, and sometimes we are working in the same area. 5. How does this style impact your work (meaning, working with others can be challenging, supportive, helpful, frustrating and working independently can be lonely, empowering, difficult? ) It is a little bit of both so it is fairly balanced, leaning more tow ards independent. I think independently is the best way for this field of work. When I am in the gym I like to focus on my goal or the person am trainings goal in this case. If it was more of a team environment they would likely distract me while am training my trainee. What do you like least about your job? What I least like of the job is a pretty hard question. I love just about everything related to fitness. If I had to say, it would probably be the salary. I could do with a higher salary, but I don t plan on working here forever and eventually I will move on up. 7. What was your major in college? Majored in Nutrition in college. After I finished I got my certification in personal training. After I save up enough from my current job I will then start my own private business and train and diet people for NP competitions. 8.Please describe your career path to this current job. My career path was first working as a sales associate at LA fitness, then after completing my major in nut rition in college, I got certified in personal training and it was easy for me to get the job here because I already worked there. Reflection My career path is to become a personal trainer, and eventually own my own chain of fitness gyms, similar to LA Fitness. It aligns with my purpose because it will give me a chance to help people, and help myself at the same time. It is a win win career path. Nick, the individual I interviewed who is employed atLA Fitness has been employed in that career for 3 years now. He is the head of the fitness department and specializes in personal fitness. The path he took to get to where he is at now is pretty much how I envisioned it myself, even though he is not at his goal yet. Him working already at LA Fitness gave him the opportunity to secure a personal training job there, and also to be the head Of that department. Am now more interested than ever in this field, even though he made a good point about the salary not really being up to par, but I p lan on owning my own gyms so it will increase within time. Interview I interviewed Joe Neal, Deputy Probation Officer III, Mendocino County Adult Probation. I learned a lot about the Probation OfficerÃ¢â¬â¢s job and Joe during my time interviewing him. Joe started his law enforcement career at a young age. He did not go into much detail about his career start, but did tell me that he eventually ended up being a Juvenile Court Judge. He retired then went to work at the Mendocino County SheriffÃ¢â¬â¢s Department. Due to the stress and shift work there he decided he would have more impact on people if he were in probation. He applied and went through the process and was hired. His goal was to help people turn their lives around and live drug and alcohol free productive lives. Although probation is also a high stress job, Joe said he would choose this profession again if he were younger. I asked him about his daily routine and job responsibilities. Case load seemed to be the majority of his day. Reading reports, petitions and distributing cases to the 65 probation officers in his office. I am told that a pre-sentencing report can take from 8 to 12 hours to complete. There are on average of 25 to over 100 that come in on a daily basis. On average there are from 70 to 100 cases per officer in our county at the adult probation office and 15 to 40 at juvenile probation. When I asked Joe about transfers or advancement, he smiled, almost laughed and simply said Ã¢â¬Å"No way. Ã¢â¬ He explained to me that in the economic crunch and with a lack of providers in our county, things are at a stand still. When the economy is not so bad, a transfer can usually take place on a case by case basis and are recommended by a supervisor. We got onto the subject on personal rewards of the job. Much like me, Joe takes great pride in helping people start their lives over on a positive drug and alcohol free path. Seeing people accomplish this he says Ã¢â¬Å"Is very rewarding. Ã¢â¬ I asked him about the hiring process and what it takes to be a probation officer. He asked me if I was sure this is what I wanted to do for a career. He handed me a rather thick packet of papers that describe how the hiring process takes place. In reading through it, I was very impressed at the amount of information the packet contained. The very extensive background checks, the lie detector process and personal life habits. Things like whether you have stolen a pen from work, paying your bills on time and a full credit history. The documents they need to verify your information and pages and pages of information on your previous addresses, jobs and family members, including step. It is started by applying and then applications are sorted by qualifications. There is a written exam with the State. Once the exam is passes, there is an Oral Board interview. A copy of your driving record printout, copy of current driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license, sealed copies of college transcripts, copy of your college diploma, social security card, birth certificate, release forms for verification of information provided, and a handwritten autobiographical history. Once that information is verified fingerprinting takes place. When you pass all of the background the next step is to be scheduled for a physical and a psychological exam. An offer of employment is contingent with passing the physical and psychological exam. I got the impression from this packet that if you are not a person who takes the time to keep your life in order, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t possibly help others learn how to either. I also noticed during the interview how short most of JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s answers were. I asked him why he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t elaborate on different questions, he told me that he learned a long time ago to get to the point quickly and you get the best answer from your questions. If they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have too much information to compute, you usually get an answer beyond Ã¢â¬Å"just becauseÃ¢â¬ . I noticed JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s office was very tidy and well organized. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t ask how much time he spends filing or organizing, but with the case loads, I imagine he has to make the time after each task to be prepared for the next duty of the day. As I was walking out, I thanked him for his time and for all of the valuable information he gave me. He then informed me that he is now retiring and his time will be spent Ã¢â¬Å"Eating Bon-BonÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ I left JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s office, headed home and thought about what he had told me. There is a lot of information to store for my future and to meet my goals. In the end, I have decided that, yes, this is in fact what I want to do.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
What Hath God Wrought Essay Example What Hath God Wrought Essay What Hath God Wrought Essay What Hath God Wrought BY Kimb01130 Final Essay Prompt Daniel Walker Howe; author of What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848, an American historian who dedicated his works would more directly pinpoint the early historical periods of U. S. historys intelligence and religious pursuits. Howe sought his time to write such piece of work on the United States history through its intellectual, religious, social, and political standpoints at the time when Americas founders were handing the leadership of the nation to a new generation to come. This book lets the reader know how the people believed to view our country, America, as an example of Democracy and the highly important forces that made American Democracy meaningful in its own. Where in Chapter 20: The Revolution of 1848, Howe in major detail pinpoints the many historical build up of events that led to the major change in American domestic affairs which also concluded in our country being a enormous part of the worldwide community of nations. History is merely the most important aspect of what today turnouts are. The major change for America began in the year of 1848 when revolutions broke out cross the Atlantic, beginning in Europe with such revolution in representation of liberal, democratic, ethnic-minority groups in the movement to overthrow authoritarian regimes. These revolutions overseas had an impact on Americas religious aspects that would become a major phenomenon in outcome of major change in overthrowing the divine vindication of the Protestant Reformation. Americans in the attempt to intervene in Europes revolutions was beginning the mfoung Ireland movement in New York which in hope would reach Ireland concluding in the United States apologizing to British for such intervening to secure elease of the Irish Americans which whom were arrested. Little after this movement, two of the major American political parties differed from each other in response of European revolutions. Where Democrats party stood with their favorite principle , the sovereignty of the people .. on the ruins of despotism in the Old World .. fraternal congratulations to the National Convention of the Republic of France .. Howe, 793). Yet in the other hand the Whig party stood more with the attachment of legal order and sympathizing with the others. The separation of these parties began he major change in domestic affairs throughout 1848. A major conservative by the name of John C. Calhoun expressed his sense of disgust at the European revolutions, for he believed Fran ce was not ready to become a Republic alone. Yet apart from the sympathies of republicans, the United States withheld standing aside Europe only for the important ties commercially and financially that kept these two tied to one another. Slave-grown cotton being one ot the leading U. S. exports to Europe, the big stake on cotton trade was too highly risk to jeopardize. Yet these ties were too strong to break; in 1848 came along one major transformation of America bigger than those European revolutions. The United States had gained an empire including its Hispanic- Catholic people, on the Pacific after the war with Mexico had came to an end. The major flow of immigrants coming into California involved the discovery of gold. Americas influx of Catholic people transformed the nation from a Protestant society to a religiously pluralistic one. In December of 1847, President Polk announced to Congress Mexicans had commenced the war, shedding the blood of our citizens upon our own soil (Howe,796). After this message it is where every party stood differently when dealing with such announced message of the Mexican-American War. The Whig party refused to take territory from Mexico while Polk believed it was little amount to what they owed the United States and in which Polk suggested to Congress a substantial dictated transfer of territory when in response Whigs questioned such assertion that Mexico started the war. The domestic affairs in America had changes coming that would drastically change the standing of he many ways with dealing with any events in politics and government. The Mexican-American War created many controversies between the two political parties on whether or not Mexico began the war and whether they owed the United States a substantial territorial transfer. There was two other possible conclusions for ending the war. Calhouns proposal was to draw a line in a certain area such as Rio Grande, land North of such line would be annexed whether or not the rest of Mexico signed the peace treaty. Many in administration disagreed with such proposal. Another suggestion was made by Robert Stockton Lewis Cass, democratic imperialists. Their suggestion was to annex all of Mexico to the United States, best way to avoid a peace treaty, keeping in mind Mexicos number one attraction to the U. S. being their silver mines. The suggestion did not fall through because the fact that All Mexico which meant all its people would come along with was not the best picture many liked, and would compromise the ideal exclusive white republic. After trying to fgure out what the best outcome could be that every party began to ither use such situation to their advantage or to sympathize with all of Mexico in order to figure out whether Polk in reality truly was right that Mexico was the one to commence such war. Lincoln mention, Polk should remember he sts where Washington sat and tell the truth about the origin of the war Polk must be deeply conscious of being in the wrong. (Howe, 799). Not only did Lincoln question whether Polk spoke the truth about the origins of the war, as well did majority of the Whig party. In the end, around April Mexico and the U. S. began to negotiate a peace treaty. Such event, not only caused major tragic and suttering throughout North and South America but it took a toll on Americas political parties caused them to diverge more from one another in disagreement on how they would deal with the outcome of the war. The Whigs preference to finalize peace between the two was No Territory at all. Horace Greely said, Let us have peace, no matter if the adjuncts are revolting (Howe, 807). Where the Democratic side, wanted All Mexico in peace treaty but soon enough they ended accepting Whigs conclusion with no complaint at all. Trists treaty said, an act of treason to the integrity, position, and honor of this Empire. (Howe, 807). Yet, Mexican president Benito Juarez argue that Mexico did not need to sign a peace treaty in which they were in mere disadvantage and would turn out in a guerilla war. In that same period of time came along the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in which any of the people in Mexico could retain United States citizenship or remain Mexican citizens if wished to keep their citizenship. California held back from recognizing Mexican Americans as citizens until the decision by the state supreme court was held n 1870. Such movement in government and California brought out many party members ugly side adn gave Mexican Americans a difficulty in establishing themselves as legally white. Hubert H. Bancroft said, the extermination of the Indians until the Indian race becomes extinct ( Howe, 810). Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was stilled, John Quincy Adams had voted against the declaration of war and he wanted no territory of Mexico. The domestic affairs had drastic changes in that year of 1848 for the major parties diverged from one another in conclusion or in inding a conclusion for the Mexican American War. These domestic affairs evolved in changing rapidly in a turnout for todays domestic affairs to be more precise on dealing with many of the issues America withholds with more delicate and detailed look over every issue. Every outcome dealing with the same process of development for every party will always withhold different opinions regardless of what issue America comes across. Historical events not only changed but shaped our domestic affairs for better and for generations to come to be able to manage such with more ease and importance.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Organizations and Behavior - Essay Example Organization theory is not quite prepared to confront this. Nevertheless, organizational knowledge, or the knowledge produced by managerial and organizational activities and events, is generated by the accumulation of distinct experiences of members in a particular organization and its environment. This organizational knowledge then made the possibilities for effective organizational structure, corporate culture, and management and leadership strategies (ibid). Therefore, in this paper, two different organizations, namely General Electric and Ford Motor will be compared and contrast using the various organizational theory. An in-depth look at these two organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ structure, corporate culture, and management and leadership approaches will also be included. Nonstop changes have become a normal occurrence for companies and their employees in the contemporary periodÃ¢â¬â¢s cutthroat, competitive business world. During the recent years, several companies have endeavour into remarkable adjustments such as removing strata of management, streamlining techniques, motivating employees and laying off others, creating self-empowered work teams, and others. In periods as such, companies clearly need competent leadership strategies, yet particularly so at the highest level of the organization. Even though numerous of business adjustments happening nowadays might appear to most employees, a beaming model of the common idea of consistently changing an organization for improvement is the General Electric Corporation (GE), which experienced an extensive restructuring process commencing in the opening of the 1980s under the administration of their Chief Executive Officer (CEO), John F. Welch (Strohmeier, 1998). The most important leadership codes dev eloped by Welch at the time these changes can provide as a framework for other leaders confronting similar predicaments in their workplaces regardless of
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Managerial Finance - Research Paper Example 19964 million. J Sainsbury plc consists of SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s - a chain of 547 supermarkets and 343 convenience stores and the SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Bank (Jsainsburys, 2011). One of the most innovative services offered by the company is its online servicing and delivery system. Customers can make their purchases online and Sainsbury will deliver to 90% of the UK households. The system generates over 100,000 orders per week. The firm has a division called Sainsbury Property that has a portfolio that includes 297 freehold and long leasehold properties and 43 joint venture properties (Jsainsburys). The retail operation of the company generates 19 million customers transaction every week. Five Business Ratios (2009-2010) 2009 2010 Net margin 289 / 18911 = 1.53% 585 / 19994 = 2.93% Current ratio 1268 / 4511 = 0.28 1797 / 2793 = 0.64 Return on capital 289 / 4157 = 6.95% 585 / 4966 = 11.78% Debt ratio 9836 / 5679 = 1.73 10855 / 5889 = 1.84 Earnings per share 16.6 32.1 Sainsbury vs. FTSE100 ind ex This part of the paper will demonstrate a comparison between the market price of the Sainsbury common stock and the FTSE 100 index. The graph that show the movement in the price of the stock and the index are illustrated in appendix A and appendix B. In order to evaluate the results further qualitative information based on company news is going to be used to attempt to interpret the results of the graph. The FTSE graph shows many fluctuations in up and down with the steepest downward in July 2011. Overall the general trend of the index prices was that the price of the index went up during the last year. During the first quartile of the graph the trend in prices of the Sainsbury was very similar to the movement in the FTSE 100 graph. The price of the Sainsbury stock peak in September 2010 and it bottom out during April of 2011. A piece of news that always shakes the price of common stocks is the release of quarterly results. The latest quarterly results of the company were release d in March 23, 2011. The graph illustrates that after the release of this piece of news the price of the stock after being the lowest point during the last year it began to steadily go up until May of this year. Analysis of Sainsbury financial performance In order to determine the viability of Sainsbury (J) as possible stock investment alternative this paper will analyze the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall financial performance. The analysis includes their operations and how Sainsbury (J) compares with other similar stocks and its industry sector. By comparing key financial ratios we can visualize the overall financial position of the company and how the company compares to its overall industry sector in order to determine its attractiveness as a stock investment in a personal investment portfolio. Sainsbury (J) has become a leader in the grocery foods sector with a 16.9% market share in the UK. The company has made a number of fundamental changes in recent years in order to enhance overal l competitiveness and fuel future growth. Sainsbury is known to be the world leader in Fair Trade Products with around 25% of all Fair trade Products in the UK. The company was also named Supermarket of the Year at the 2009 Retail Industry Awards for their efforts to innovate and adapt to changing customer needs over the last year. SainsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s operational focus is centered accelerating future growth and sustainability. The five key operational areas the company focuses on in order to further increase its market